BGS Software

AquiMod is a simple, lumped-catchment groundwater model. It simulates groundwater-level time series at a point by linking simple algorithms of soil drainage, unsaturated-zone flow and groundwater flow. It takes time series of rainfall and potential evapotranspiration as input and produces a time series of groundwater level. Hydrographs of flows through the outlets of the groundwater store are also generated, which can potentially be related to river flow measurements.

Aquimod groundwater time-series simulation
Information icon

Example groundwater level time-series simulation using AquiMod (cyan) and observed levels (black). Source: BGS © UKRI.

Expand icon

The software is easy to use and should be accessible to users who are new to the field of groundwater or hydrological modelling. The model is configured using a series of text files and run through the command line.

AquiMod is written in C++. It is based on a previous version of the code, R-Groundwater, which was written in the R programming language. A precompiled 32-bit binary distribution for the Windows operating system can be downloaded for free along with the user manual and an example application to a UK aquifer.

Generalised structure of AquiMod.
Information icon

Generalised structure of AquiMod. Source: BGS © UKRI

Expand icon

Key features of AquiMod

  • Fast simulation of groundwater level time-series
  • User-defined time stepping for flexibility
  • Monte Carlo parameter sampling
  • Modular structure with multiple process representations
  • Choice of objective functions to evaluate model efficiency

Jackson, C R, Wang, L, Pachocka, M, Mackay, J D, Bloomfield, J P. 2016. Reconstruction of multi–decadal groundwater level time–series using a lumped conceptual model. Hydrological Processes, Vol. 30(18), 3107–3125.

Mackay, J D, Jackson, C R, Brookshaw, A, Scaife, A A, Cook, J, Ward, R S. 2015. Seasonal forecasting of groundwater levels in principal aquifers of the United KingdomJournal of Hydrology, Vol. 530, 815–828.

Mackay, J D, Jackson, C R, Wang, L. 2014. A lumped conceptual model to simulate groundwater level time–series. Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol. 61, 229–245.

Prudhomme, C, Haxton, T, Crooks, S, Jackson, C, Barkwith, A, Williamson, J, Kelvin, J, Mackay, J D, Wang, L, Young, A, and Watts, G. 2013. Future flows hydrology: an ensemble of daily river flow and monthly groundwater levels for use for climate change impact assessment across Great Britain. Earth System Science Data, Vol. 5(1), 101–107.

Upton, K A, and Jackson, C R. 2011. Simulation of the spatio-temporal extent of groundwater flooding using statistical methods of hydrograph classification and lumped parameter models. Hydrological Processes, Vol. 25, 1949–1963.

Terms of use

The data is delivered under the Open Government Licence, subject to the following acknowledgement accompanying the reproduced BGS materials: ‘Contains British Geological Survey materials © UKRI [year]’.


Please enter your details to download the Aquimod files.


If you require further information, wish to report a problem with the software or have suggestions as to how we can improve it, please contact the AquiMod development team.

You may also be interested in



As part of its ongoing research, BGS have developed a number of software tools to advance their understanding of scientific systems and help them model geological and hydrogeological processes.

Show more

Was this page helpful?

  • How can we make this section better?*

  • Please select a reason*

  • How can we make this section better?*