Geological processes

Discovering Geology

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Planet Earth is dynamic with a surface that is always changing. Rocks can be converted into another type of rock, for example igneous to metamorphic. These process are shown in the rock cycle, which describes the ways in which rocks are slowly recycled over millions of years and transformed between the three rock types: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks.

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Aerial view of the meander of the River Forth outside Stirling.


Erosion involves the movement of rock fragments through gravity, wind, rain, rivers, oceans and glaciers.

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Weathering is the wearing down or breaking of rocks while they are in place.

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Deposition is the laying down of sediment carried by wind, water, or ice.

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Landforms are features on the Earth’s surface that make up the terrain.

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1/4 m. SE of New Bridge, Military Road. Looking WNW.


Relief is the term used for the differences in height across the land’s surface and is affected by the underlying rocks.

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