The Hydrates and Ices Laboratory at BGS is led by Dr Chris Rochelle and is carried out within the Fluid and Rock Processes Laboratory cluster. The BGS Hydrate and Ices Laboratory is a specialised facility that has been used for 10 years to study the behaviour of gas hydrates within sediments. Hydrates are a sub-group of a range of compounds called clathrates and have water molecule cages. A wide range of gases and low boiling point liquids can fit in the cages, including methane and carbon dioxide. They are usually white, ice-like solids that are stable at low temperatures and high pressures (e.g. deep oceans, below permafrost in polar regions). The lab contains a variety of temperature-controlled equipment and pressure vessels capable of maintaining controlled experimental conditions representative of temperatures and pressures typical the sea bed of deep seas or below permafrost. As well as the equipment in which gas hydrates can be formed, BGS can also undertake cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and cryogenic X-ray diffraction (cryo-XRD), both of which are capable of analysing cryo-preserved samples of hydrates/ice.
Lab capabilities include the following:
- synthesis of CO2 and methane hydrate as solid hydrates and as sediment-hosted hydrates in a variety of lithologies
- simulation of permafrost through freezing wet sediments
- pressure / temperature cycling, and dissociation studies of hydrates and ice
- geophysical measurements on hydrates and frozen sediments
- resistivity logging using non-contact methods, internal resistivity determination
- determination of acoustic properties (Vp, and Vs) of hydrates and frozen sediments
Areas of investigation
Areas of investigation in which the laboratory and associated facilities have been involved include the following:
- The formation of CO2 hydrate in deep-water sediments, and its relationship with pore fluids and mineral grains. The formation of CO2 hydrate in cool, moderately deep-water marine sediments is a fairly novel method for underground CO2 storage, but offers certain advantages in terms of geochemical trapping mechanisms. The conditions and reactions we study are quite different to those in more conventional CO2 storage schemes, where conditions are warmer and where free CO2 exists as a supercritical fluid. Storage areas of interest are:
- a) As liquid CO2 with a hydrate cap above a relatively shallow reservoir;
- b) The formation of CO2 hydrate as a secondary trapping mechanism should CO2 migrate out of a much deeper reservoir.
- The study of seabed core material to elucidate the relationship between natural methane hydrate and the sediment that hosts it, and the process of hydrate breakdown during warming and depressurisation.
- Planetary Science: Study of hydrate and ice breakdown under low pressure / temperature conditions representative of those on Mars.
Equipment capabilities have recently been enhanced by a major refit of the laboratory and now include:
- a 3x3x2.4 m cold room capable of maintaining stable temperatures from -20°C to +10°C
- a large (1200 litre) cooled incubator capable of maintaining stable temperatures from -10°C to +50°C
- a medium-sized (600 litre) cooled incubator capable of maintaining stable temperatures from -10°C to +50°C
- a small (1200 litre) cooled incubator capable of maintaining stable temperatures from -10°C to +50°C
- other fridges, freezers and chiller units can maintain a range of low temperatures as required
A range of equipment can be placed into the incubators or cold room as required. This includes physical testing equipment, electronic sensors, or pressure vessels. The latter range in size from approximately 1–12 litres. Many items of equipment in the lab have been manufactured within BGS workshops, and it is possible to construct specialised equipment for specific studies.
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Research in the TPRL and FPL is focused on understanding fluid (water, gas and solutes) movement and rock deformation in the subsurface, specialising in the measurement of properties in ultra-low permeability materials.