Christian Arnhardt

Dr Christian Arnhardt

Engineering geologist - landslide and geohazard specialist
BGS Keyworth

Dr Christian Arnhardt is an Engineering Geologist with over 20 years of experience in consultancy, research institutes & academia. In 2017 he joined the British Geological Survey, supporting the landslide team as a Geohazard Specialist in national and international projects (e.g. India, Malaysia, Columbia), dealing mainly with landslide hazards and risk analysis, including Monitoring and Early Warning Systems (EWS) for landslides.

Christian Arnhardt’s Biography

  • 2017 to ongoing: BGS (Keyworth, UK), Engineering geologist – landslide and geohazard specialist
  • 2017 to 2019: BGS (Keyworth, UK), PDRA Geohazard Specialist South Asia
  • 2016 to 2017: Patrick Parsons Ltd. (Glasgow, UK), Senior Geotechnical Engineer
  • 2015 to 2016: Geohart Consultants (Clayton, Australia), Senior Engineering Geologist
  • 2015 to 2016: RMIT University (Melbourne, Australia), Honorary Research Associate
  • 2011 to 2014: DB International GmbH / German Railway Company Group (Duisburg, Germany), Senior Geotechnical Engineer and Engineering Geologist
  • 2011 to 2011: German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), Environment and Rural Development Department (Leyte Island, the Philippines), Consultant for Engineering Geology and Landslide hazards
  • 2007 to 2012: RWTH Aachen University (Germany), PhD in Engineering Geology (Dr. rer. nat)
  • 2007 to 2011: RWTH Aachen University/Department of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Aachen, Germany), Research Associate
  • 2002 to 2007: geo-international Company (Mainz, Germany), Engineering Geologist
  • 1994 to 2001: Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz (Germany), Faculty of Geology, Dipl.-Geol. (Equivalent of Master in Geology)

Research interests

  • Landslide hazards, monitoring, Early Warning Systems, working in international countries and communities

Project interests

  • Comprehensive Multi Hazard Risk Assessment in Malawi – Developing hazard and risk maps for Malawi on a national level with a level of detail useful also at provincial level. BGS focuses on the landslide analysis and produced several landslide hazard and risk maps for this.
  • Post-Cyclone Recovery in Malawi – the overall project objective is to provide the necessary data and knowledge to the World Bank to support the continued recovery phase following Cyclone Freddy. BGS will focus on the mapping of landslides occurred during the storm event and the analysis of the landslide run-out, which will be used to identify critical infrastructures that are already affected but also might be potentially affected in the future.
  • LANDSLIP – Landslide multi-hazard risk assessment, preparedness and early warning in South Asia: Integrating meteorology, landscape and society – Through advances in interdisciplinary science and application in practice, the collective ambition of this consortium is to contribute to better landslide risk assessment and early warning in a multi-hazard framework, and, by working with national and district authorities, better preparedness for hydrologically controlled landslides and related hazards on a slope to regional spatial scale, and daily to seasonal temporal scale.
  • Disaster Resilient Cities – Forecasting Local Level Climate Extremes and Physical Hazards for Kuala Lumpur – customise climate and hazard models from the UK to forecast physical hazards common in Kuala Lumpur i.e. flash floods and floods, landslides, sinkholes, strong winds, urban heat and local air pollution; to test their viability; to develop a prototype multi-hazard platform for managing and communicating the risks of damaging events to enhance disaster resilience; and to promote the platform through outreach and marketing.

ORCID: 0000-0002-6620-2145


Key papers

  • Lutfiananda, F, Azhari, D, Anandhini, N, Sagala, S, Engwell, S, Hussain, E, Arnhardt, C, Crummy, J, Duncan, M, Novellino, A, Tappin, D, and Winson, A. 2022. Understanding geological hazards to support disaster risk assessment in Indonesia: a report on a collaborative workshop between Resilience Development Initiative and the British Geological Survey. British Geological Survey, 55pp. (OR/22/081) (Unpublished)
  • Arnhardt, C, Banks, V, Mansour, M, Nedumpallile Vasu, N, Ougier-Simonin, A, Priya V K, Krishna, Sajinkumar, K, and Mathiyalaghan, R. 2023. Development of landslide domain maps at regional scale in data poor areas underlain by tropical soils. [Lecture] In: 6th World Landslide Forum (WL6), Florence, Italy, 14–17 Nov 2023. (Unpublished)
  • Budimir, M, Mondini, A, Rossi, M, Arnhardt, C, and Robbins, J. 2022. Framework for implementation of a landslide early warning forecast model in developing countries: challenges and lessons from SHEAR. SHEAR, 26pp. (UNSPECIFIED) (Unpublished)
  • Krabbendam, M, Palamakumbura, R, Arnhardt, C, and Hall, A. 2021. Rock fracturing by subglacial hydraulic jacking in basement rocks, eastern Sweden: the role of beam failure.   GFF, 143. 390–405.
  • Arnhardt, C. 2022. Landslide early warning systems (LEWS). [Lecture] In: Lectures at Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung, Indonesia, 06 Oct 2022. British Geological Survey. (Unpublished)
  • Novellino, A, Pennington, C, Arnhardt, C, Leeming, K, Taylor, S, and Gonzalez Alvarez, I. 2023. Preliminary Landslide Inventory Following 6 Feb 2023 Turkey-Syria Earthquake. 1:5 000 and 1:10 000. British Geological Survey. (Unpublished)
  • Nedumpallile Vasu, N, Banks, V, Arnhardt, C, Mansour, M, and Ougier-Simonin, A. 2022. Review of trigger thresholds for landslides in tropical residual soils. [Lecture] In: International Conference On Engineering Geology and Geotechniques for Safe and Sustainable Infrastructures, Novotel Hotel, Kolkata, 16–17 Nov 2022. (Unpublished)
  • Bee, E, and Malamud, B. 2022. Developing the conceptual framework for a prototype government-led regional Landslide Early Warning System in India. [Other] In: EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, 23–27 May 2022. European Geosciences Union.
  • Novellino, A, Pennington, C, Leeming, K, Taylor, S, Gonzalez Alvarez, I, McAllister, E, Arnhardt, C, and Winson, A. 2024. Mapping landslides from space: a review.   Landslides, 21. 1041–1052.
  • Banks, V, Arnhardt, C, Lee, K, Nedumpallile Vasu, N, and Williams, C. 2023. Landslide susceptibility modelling in a changing climate. [Lecture] In: Accelerating Climate Adaptation Action through Science workshop, Climate Disaster Risk Management, Flood and Landslide session, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2023. British Geological Survey.    (Unpublished)
  • Krabbendam, M, Dioguardi, F, Arnhardt, C, Roberson, S, Hall, and Adrian M. 2023. Drag forces at the ice-sheet bed and resistance of hard-rock obstacles: the physics of glacial ripping. Journal of Glaciology, 69 (273). 103–119.
  • Fletcher, D H, Likongwe, P J, Chiotha, S S, Nduwayezu, G, Mallick, D, Uddin Md, N, Rahman, A, Golovátina-Mora, P, Lotero, L, Bricker, S, Tsirizeni, M, Fitch, A, Panagi, M, Ruiz Villena, C, Arnhardt, C, Vande Hey, J, Gornall, R, and Jones, L. 2021. Using demand mapping to assess the benefits of urban green and blue space in cities from four continents.   Science of the Total Environment, 785, 147238. 12, pp.
  • LANDSLIP Project. 2021. LANDSLIP knowledge product: landslide data. British Geological Survey, 13pp. (OR/21/068) (Unpublished)
  • LANDSLIP Project. 2021. LANDSLIP knowledge product: landslide forecasting. British Geological Survey, 13pp. (OR/21/069) (Unpublished)
  • Palamakumbura, R, Krabbendam, M, Whitbread, K, and Arnhardt, C. 2020. Data acquisition by digitizing 2-D fracture networks and topographic lineaments in geographic information systems: further development and applications. Solid Earth, 11 (5). 1731–1746.
  • Smith, J V, Arnhardt, C. 2016. A New Assessment Method for Structural-Control Failure Mechanisms in Rock Slopes — Case Examples. – In: AIMS Geosciences, 2016, 2(3): 214–230. doi: 10.3934/geosci.2016.3.214
  • Smith, J V, Arnhardt, C. 2016. Distinguishing between single and double plane sliding of tetrahedral wedges using the circle method. In: Engineering Geology, Volume 211, 23 August 2016, Pages 98–101
  • Fernandez-Steeger, T M, Arnhardt, C. 2016. Monitoring case study: Rock Towers at the “Felsenbühne Rathen”. In: CSIC Best Practice Guide on Wireless Sensor Networks, Cambridge
  • Arnhardt, C, Neussner, O. 2013. Setup of a Landslide Monitoring System on the Philippine Island of Leyte Near the Village of Malinao (Municipality of St. Bernard). In: Landslide Science and Practice – Volume 2: Early Warning, Instrumentation and Monitoring (2013), 161–167, Springer-Verlag, Berlin
  • Arnhardt, C. 2012. Monitoring of Surface Movements in Landslide Areas with a self-organizing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Mitteilung zur Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogologie, Heft 105, Aachen, Januar 2012
  • Walter, M, Arnhardt, C, Joswig, M. 2011. Seismic monitoring of rockfalls, slide quakes, and fissure development at the Super-Sauze mudslide, French Alps. In: Engineering Geology (2011), doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.11.002
  • Azzam, R, Fernandez-Steeger, T M, Arnhardt, C, Klapperich, H, Shou, K.-J. 2011. Monitoring of landslides and infrastructures with wireless sensor networks in an earthquake environment. In: 5th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (5ICEGE).
  • Azzam, R, Arnhardt, C, Fernandez-Steeger, T M. 2010. Monitoring Systems for Geohazards based on Self-Organizing Sensor Networks. In: 11th Congress of the International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment, Geologically Active, 5–10. September, Auckland, New Zealand, 3609–3616.
  • Arnhardt, C, Fernandez-Steeger, T M, Azzam, R. 2010. Sensorfusion in an ad-hoc Multi-hop Sensor network for real-time monitoring of landslides endangering human infrastructures. In: GEOTECHNOLOGIEN Science Report 15. Early Warning Systems for Transportation Infrastructures, 38–49.
  • Arnhardt, C, Fernandez-Steeger, T M, Azzam, R. 2010. Sensor Fusion of Position- and Micro-Sensors (MEMS) integrated in a Wireless Sensor Network for movement detection in landslide areas. In: General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union 2010, May 02–07. 2010, Vienna (Austria). Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 12 (EGU2010-8828)
  • Arnhardt, C, Fernandez-Steeger, T M, Azzam, R. 2009. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks. In: General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union 2009, 19–24 April 2009, Vienna (Austria). Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11 (EGU2009-6048)
  • Haß, S, Asch, K, Fernandez-Steeger, T M, Arnhardt, C. 2009. People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management. In: General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union 2009, 19–24 April 2009, Vienna (Austria). Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11 (EGU2009-11466-2) .


  • Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering
  • Landslide hazard analysis and modelling
  • Landslide monitoring

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