Like many cities around the world, Hanoi has entered a new era of expansion to accommodate a rapidly increasing urban population. Plans are in place for a major new road network, new rail links, an expanded city core, five satellite urban areas and three eco-townships. To build these, large quantities of raw materials, including sand, crushed rock, steel and bricks — as well as a wide range of other metals and minerals necessary for construction — are needed. If the supply of raw materials to meet these requirements becomes constrained, then growth will be adversely affected.
The BGS and the Geological Survey of Vietnam (GDGMV) have used data from national and international sources, combined with remote sensing analysis, to develop a material flow analysis (MFA) model for the city’s future requirements. Results indicate increases in requirements ranging from a twofold increase in cement and sand to a fivefold increase in steel by 2030, based on 2016 consumption levels.