Dr Caroline Graham

Geomechanics Specialist

Location: Keyworth

Tel: 0115 936 3391

E-mail Dr Caroline Graham


  • 2013 – ongoing : Laboratory Manager - Transport Properties Research Laboratory
  • 2009 – ongoing : Transport Properties Research Laboratory, BGS
  • 2005 –2010 : PhD in Rock Mechanics, University of Edinburgh, 'Scale model seismicity: a detailed study of deformation localisation by acoustic emission data'
  • 2004 –2005 : MRes in Physics of the Earth and Atmosphere (Volcano-seismology), University of Leeds
  • 2000 –2004 : BSc (Hons) in Geophysics, University of Edinburgh

Commissioned reports

  • Graham, C.C. and Harrington, J.F. (2014). Final Report of FORGE 3.2.1: Key gas Migration Process in Compact Bentonite, BGS Commissioned Report, FORGE FP7 D3.33, CR/14/064, 60pp.
  • Graham, C. C., Cuss, R.J. and Wiseall, A. (2014). Shear rig experiments on transport behaviour of fractured rock, Chapter 2, In: Mathilde Adelinet, Jean-François Nauroy , C.C. Graham, R.J. Cuss and A.C. Wiseall, E. Bakker, C.J. Spiers and S.J.T. Hangx, D4.5 - Progress report with data on processes, constitutive relations and parameters for modelling work, Understanding the Long-Term fate of geologically stored CO2 (ULTimateCO2), FP-7 Energy Project No. 281196. Project acronym: ULTimateCO2, 13pp.
  • Graham, C.C., Harrington, J.F. and Cuss, R.J. (2014). Gas migration in bentonite - fundamental issues, Chapter 10 in FORGE FP7 WP3 Final Report D3.38: Experiments and modelling on the behaviour of EBS, 33pp.
  • Graham, C.C., Cuss, ,R.J. and Reeves, H. (2014). Mechanical and transport properties of caprock with pre-existing fractures and induced faults, Part 2 in: Dautriat, J., Graham, C.C., Cuss, R.J., Reeves, H.J., Bakker, E., Spiers, C.J., D4.4: Recommendations on processes, constitutive relations and parameter choices for modelling work, Understanding the Long-Term fate of geologically stored CO2 (ULTimateCO2), FP-7 Energy Project No. 281196, 46pp.
  • Chambers, J., Goodenough, K. M., Graham, C. C., Price, S. J., Weatherby, A., Sanders, R., Perry, F., Porter, L., Bloomfield, J. P., Jordan, C. J., Laxton, J. L., Shelley, W. A., Naden, J., Watts, M., Condon, D. and Barkwith, A. K. A. P. (2013). NERC Science: Future Impacts Summary Report. British Geological Survey Open Report, OR/13/037. 16pp.
  • Barkwith, A.K.A.P., Chambers, J.E., Goodenough, K. M., Graham, C.C., Laxton, J.L., Naden, J., Price, S. J. and Wilby, P.R. (2012). National Capability Integration: Future Opportunities and Challenges, BGS Internal Report IR/12/040, 9pp.

Current projects and collaboration

Research interests

  • Multi-phase fluid flow in low permeability geomaterials
  • Seal behaviour/integrity in geological storage of carbon dioxide (CCS)
  • Rock and soil mechanics
  • Geological storage of radioactive waste
  • Experimental design
  • Acoustic emissions and associated micromechanics
  • Science futures


  • Multi-phase transport testing of rocks and clays
  • Deformation testing of geomaterials
  • Testing clay swelling properties
  • Acoustic monitoring and source analysis

Key papers

Cuss, R.J., Harrington, J., Noy, D., Graham, C.C. and Sellin, P. (In press). Evidence of localised gas propagation pathways in a field-scale bentonite engineered barrier system; results from three gas injection tests in the Large scale gas injection test (Lasgit), Applied Clay Science.

Graham, C.C., Harrington, J.F., Cuss, R.J., and Sellin, P. (2014). Pore-pressure cycling experiments on Mx80 bentonite. In: Norris, S., Bruno, J., Cathelineau, M., Delage, P., Fairhurst, C., Gaucher, E. C., Höhn, E. H., Kalinichev, A., Lalieux, P. & Sellin, P. (eds) Clays in Natural and Engineered Barriers for Radioactive Waste Confinement. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 400, doi: 10.1144/SP400.32.

Aydin, A., Dobbs, M.R., Reeves, H.J., Graham, C.C. and Kirkham, M.P. (2013). Measuring stress induced electric field in sandstone and granite using the Electric Potential Sensor. Proceedings, Eurock 2013, 21 - 26th September 2013, Wroclaw, Poland.

Aydin, A., Dobbs, M.R., Reeves, H.J., Kirkham, M.P., Graham, C.C., Jefferson, I. (2013). Electric field in compressed concrete using the Electric Potential Sensor. Second Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aydin, A., Dobbs, M.R., Reeves, H.J., Kirkham, M.P., and Graham, C.C. (2013). Stress induced electric field measurements of different rock lithology using the Electric Potential Sensor. 47th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium. San Francisco, USA.

Cuss, R.J., Harrington, J. F., Noy, D. J., Graham, C.C. and Sellin, P. (2013). Gas flow in compact bentonite. Gas Generation and Migration. International Symposium and Workshop. Proceedings, Luxembourg, Pg 29.

Graham, C.C., Stanchits, S., Dresen, G. and Main, I.G. (2007). Source mechanisms of acoustic emissions in triaxially loaded granite, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 9, 08485.

Graham, C.C., Harrington, J.F, Cuss, R.J., and Sellin, P. (2012). Gas migration experiments in bentonite: implications for numerical modelling. Mineralogical Magazine. December 2012, Vol. 76(8), pp.3279-3292, doi: 10,1180/minmag.2012.076.8.41.

Cuss, R.J., Harrington, J.F., Graham, C.C., Sathar, S., and Milodowski, T. (2012). Observations of stable high-pressure differentials in clay-rich materials; implications for the concept of effective stress. Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 76(8), pp.3115-3129.

Harrington, J.F., Milodowski, A.E., Graham, C.C., Rushton, J.C., and Cuss, R.J. (2012). Evidence for gas-induced pathways in clay using a nanoparticle injection technique. Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 76(8), pp.3327-3336.

Lennartz,S., Main, I.G., Zaiser,M., Graham, C.C. and Bell, A.F. 2011. The Approach to Critical Crack Growth in Earth Materials, Abstract 2011 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 5-9 Dec

Harrington, J., Birchall, D., Noy, D., Cuss, R.J. and Graham, C.C. 2011. Consolidation and mass transport properties of the Nordland Shale, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 13, 12688.

Graham, C.C., STANCHITS, S.,DRESEN, G. and Main, I.G. 2010. Comparison of polarity and moment tensor inversion methods for source analysis of acoustic emission data, International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, 47, 161-169, DOI:10.1016/J.IJRMMS.2009.05.002.