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Raw materials for a low carbon future

Fig 1: Nissan Leaf battery pack, BGS©NERC

Air pollution, climate change and energy security are the key drivers of the transformation currently underway towards a low carbon future. Several countries have developed plans for the decarbonisation of the power grid and the development of low emission vehicles. For example, the UK Government has committed to abolish the sale of new conventional cars and vans by 2040, and for every car and van on the road to be a zero emission vehicle by 2050.

Batteries and fuel cells are enabling technologies for low emission vehicles and their adoption is forecast to grow exponentially in the coming years. Even though dependency on fossil fuels will be reduced, raw materials, in particular metals, will be needed in greater amounts for the manufacture of battery packs, fuel cells, electric vehicles and hydrogen-powered vehicles. Cobalt, lithium, graphite, nickel, manganese, platinum group metals, copper, rare earth elements and many more will be required to enable this transition. Many of these materials are considered critical and issues with supply vulnerability and disruption may arise if actions to monitor the physical economy and mitigate potential impacts are not taken on time.

The low emissions vehicle transition is ambitious and requires a major shift in raw materials use. The Briefing note on raw materials for batteries in electric vehicles presents some of the key issues associated with the demand and supply of key commodities, such as cobalt, lithium and nickel, as well as a discussion of potential mitigation actions. Detailed commodity information can be found in the BGS Mineral profiles. Security of supply of raw materials is a topic of ongoing research within BGS and some further additional information can be found in the critical raw materials webpage and in the 'Critical metals for low carbon technologies: can future supply be ensured?' briefing note. The latest World Mineral Production statistics are found in the BGS Commodities & Statistics webpage.

Fig 2: World mine production of cobalt and projected future demand (BGS World Mineral Statistics Database; Glencore, 2018. The EV revolution and its impact on Raw Materials. Presentation at the International Energy Agency workshop on Batteries for Electric Mobility). BGS©NERC.