Volcano Name: Cotopaxi Smithsonian Inst ID (SI_VNUM): 352050
Alternate Name:
Cerrito del Callo
Morucu
Santa Barbara
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano(es)
Latitude: -0.6772222220
Longitude: -78.4361111100
Region: South America Sub Region: Ecuador
Date Entered: 02/05/2012

Eruption Details

Eruption Start Date: 1 /1877 Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Historical records
Eruption Date Quality: High quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.220 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.580 (Literature)
Ignimbrite DRE Volume (km3): 0.050 (Literature)
Ignimbrite Deposit Volume : 0.130 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.700 (Calculated)
Maximum Column Height (km): 10.000 (Literature)
Maximum Intensity : 9.400 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.170 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.450 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 1853 Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Low quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.090 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.240 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.400 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : <= 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.090 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.240 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 4 /4 /1768 Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Historical records
Eruption Date Quality: High quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.070 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.200 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.200 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.070 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.200 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 5 /1744 Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Historical records
Eruption Date Quality: High quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.180 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.480 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.700 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.180 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.480 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 1743 Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Low quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.120 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.317 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.500 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : <= 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.120 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.317 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 1742 Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Low quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.210 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.564 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.700 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.210 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.564 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 6 /1534 Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Historical records
Eruption Date Quality: High quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.110 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.290 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.400 (Calculated)
Maximum Column Height (km): 28.000 (Literature)
Maximum Intensity : 11.040 (Eruption Rate)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 15/11/1532 Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Historical records
Eruption Date Quality: High quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.170 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.450 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.600 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.170 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.450 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 1350 Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Tephrochronology
Eruption Date Quality: Low quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.360 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.960 (Literature)
Magnitude : 5.000 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : + 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.360 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.960 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 1231 Date Error: 67
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 820 C14 Date Error: 80
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.450 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 1.194 (Literature)
Ignimbrite DRE Volume (km3): 0.030 (Literature)
Ignimbrite Deposit Volume : 0.070 (Literature)
Magnitude : 5.100 (Calculated)
Maximum Column Height (km): 28.000 (Literature)
Maximum Intensity : 11.040 (Eruption Rate)
Maximum VEI : 5.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.420 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 1.124 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 846 Date Error: 190
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 1180 C14 Date Error: 80
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.110 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.290 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.300 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 820 Date Error: 190
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 1210 C14 Date Error: 80
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.120 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.312 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.500 (Calculated)
Maximum Column Height (km): 39.000 (Literature)
Maximum Intensity : 11.610 (Eruption Rate)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.120 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.312 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 285 Date Error: 147
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 1770 C14 Date Error: 110
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.170 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.440 (Literature)
Ignimbrite DRE Volume (km3): 0.030 (Literature)
Ignimbrite Deposit Volume : 0.070 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.600 (Calculated)
Maximum Column Height (km): 38.000 (Literature)
Maximum Intensity : 11.570 (Eruption Rate)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.140 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.370 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 210 Date Error: 185
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 1880 C14 Date Error: 160
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.210 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.560 (Literature)
Ignimbrite DRE Volume (km3): 0.030 (Literature)
Ignimbrite Deposit Volume : 0.080 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.700 (Calculated)
Maximum Column Height (km): 30.000 (Literature)
Maximum Intensity : 11.150 (Eruption Rate)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.180 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.480 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 150 Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Tephrochronology
Eruption Date Quality: Low quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.160 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.430 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.600 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.160 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.430 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 2090 BP Date Error: 262
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 2185 C14 Date Error: 215
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.120 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.320 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.500 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.120 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.320 (Literature)
Eruption Start Date: 2350 BP Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Tephrochronology
Eruption Date Quality: Low quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.140 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.372 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.500 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.140 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.372 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 3000 BP Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Tephrochronology
Eruption Date Quality: Low quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.230 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 0.620 (Literature)
Ignimbrite DRE Volume (km3): 0.020 (Literature)
Ignimbrite Deposit Volume : 0.045 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.800 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.210 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.576 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 4000 BP Date Error:
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Tephrochronology
Eruption Date Quality: Low quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.540 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 1.450 (Literature)
Magnitude : 5.100 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 5.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.540 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 1.450 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Eruption Start Date: 4535 BP Date Error: 285
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 4080 C14 Date Error: 200
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): >= 0.040 (Assumed)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): >= 0.100 (Assumed)
Magnitude : 4.000 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 4.000 (Literature)
Eruption Start Date: -2858 Date Error: 509
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Low quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 4310 C14 Date Error: 360
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 1.170 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 3.910 (Literature)
Ignimbrite DRE Volume (km3): 1.030 (Literature)
Ignimbrite Deposit Volume : 3.440 (Literature)
Magnitude : 5.400 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 5.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.140 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.468 (Literature)
Magma: Rhyolite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Rhyolite
Eruption Start Date: 5230 BP Date Error: 500
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Tephrochronology
Eruption Date Quality: Low quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.530 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 1.520 (Literature)
Ignimbrite DRE Volume (km3): 0.170 (Literature)
Ignimbrite Deposit Volume : 0.560 (Literature)
Magnitude : 5.100 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 5.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.360 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 0.960 (Literature)
Magma: Andesite-Rhyolite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Andesite
Rhyolite
Eruption Start Date: -4624 Date Error: 94
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 5830 C14 Date Error: 80
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 2.670 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 8.340 (Literature)
Ignimbrite DRE Volume (km3): 1.080 (Literature)
Ignimbrite Deposit Volume : 3.040 (Literature)
Magnitude : 5.800 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : + 5.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 1.590 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 5.300 (Literature)
Magma: Rhyolite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Rhyolite
Eruption Start Date: -5191 Date Error: 116
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 6300 C14 Date Error: 70
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 0.350 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 1.180 (Literature)
Magnitude : 4.900 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 5.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 0.350 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 1.180 (Literature)
Magma: Rhyolite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Rhyolite
Eruption Start Date: -6537 Date Error: 65
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Radiocarbon (corrected)
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
C14 Date: 7770 C14 Date Error: 70
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 2.580 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 8.600 (Literature)
Ignimbrite DRE Volume (km3): 0.210 (Literature)
Ignimbrite Deposit Volume : 0.700 (Literature)
Magnitude : 5.800 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : + 5.000 (Literature)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 2.370 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 7.900 (Literature)
Magma: Rhyolite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Rhyolite
Eruption Start Date: 490000 BP Date Error: 70000
Eruption End Date: Dating Technique: Fission track
Eruption Date Quality: Medium quality Preferred Date: Y
Bulk DRE Volume (km3): 9.660 (Literature)
Bulk deposit volume (km3): 32.200 (Literature)
Ignimbrite DRE Volume (km3): 5.700 (Literature)
Ignimbrite Deposit Volume : 19.000 (Literature)
Magnitude : 6.300 (Calculated)
Maximum VEI : 6.000 (Calculated)
Tephra fall DRE Volume (km3): 3.960 (Literature)
Tephra fall Deposit Volume (km3): 13.200 (Literature)
Magma: Rhyolite
Calculated Density:
Rock Classification:
Rhyolite

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