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Full listing of The British Geological Survey Taxonomy database

Species name Description Dimensions
Carboniferous spores
Angulisporites splendidus Bhardwaj, 1954 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular or oval. Miospores consist of inner body conformable in outline with equatorial margin, surrounded by exoexinal body with thickened equatorial rim approximately 5 µm wide. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending at least as far as the margin of the inner body; simple or accompanied by relatively low elevated, flexuous folds of the exoexine that extend decreasing in height to the equatorial margin of spore. Intexine relatively thick; forms inner body which occupies between two-thirds and three-quarters of the spore diameter. Exoexine thicker; extent of separation of exoexine from intexine difficult to ascertain but inner body commonly possesses independent compression folds suggesting separation in, at least, the equatorial region and part of the distal surface. Exoexine has thickened equatorial rim, similar to a cingulum, which occupies up to half the width of exoexinal extension. Exoexine infrapunctate.  Overall equatorial diameter 70(83)105 μm. Diameter of inner body 50(64)76 μm  More info 
Auroraspora macra Sullivan, 1968 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb circular to subcircular, frequently irregular due to folding. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extend at least two-thirds of the radius of the inner body, commonly accompanied by low thickened labra with irregular outer margins, which extend to the equatorial margin of spore. Intexine thin forming well defined inner body. Exoexine thin, variably separated from intexine, commonly folded, densely infrapunctate. Exoexine thickened in the equatorial plane to form limbus-like structure of variable width.  Overall equatorial diameter 48(58)78 μm. Diameter of inner body 26(31)35 μm  More info 
Bellispores nitidus (Horst) Sullivan, 1964 Radial, trilete, acamerate, cingulate miospores. Amb triangular with concave or more rarely straight sides and rounded apices. Outline crenulate. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, simple or with low narrow thickened labra, extending to the inner margin of the cingulum. Intexine thin, forming wall of spore body. Exoexine closely adpressed over both proximal and distal surfaces but extended in the equatorial plane to form irregular narrow cingulum, 2–5 µm wide, with irregular crenulate margin but of more or less uniform thickness. Distal surface ornamented with thickened Y-shaped structure with the three components extending from the distal pole to the cingulum which they join in the radial positions. Margins of distal thickened ribs crenulate in the same style as the cingulum, individual ribs up to 10 µm wide. Proximal surface laevigate, distal surface including distal thickened ribs and the cingulum foveolate, with foveolae less than 2 µm in diameter. Foveolae may be randomly distributed or arranged in rows. Distal thickened ribs often bear two rows of foveolae running down their length.  Overall equatorial diameter 27(36)45 μm  More info 
Cheiledonites major Doubinger, 1957 Pollen grains with oval or fusiform outline. Specimens characterised by well-developed furrow which extends almost the complete length of the grain. Furrow sometimes contorted by folding, or accompanied on either side by thickened lip-like folds. Remainder of exine also folded with axes of irregular folds parallel to long axis of grain. Exine surface finely infrapunctate.  Length of grain 35–42 μm Width of grain 18–20 μm.  More info 
Cingulizonates bialatus (Waltz) Smith & Butterworth, 1967 Radial, trilete, cingulate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular. Trilete mark usually obscure, occasionally distinct, sutures simple, straight, extending to margin of inner body. Intexine thin, laevigate, forming rounded triangular or subcircular inner body, Exoexine extending in the equatorial plane to form bizonate cingulum. Inner zone thicker and wider than outer zone; inner zone overlaps the equatorial margin of the inner body on the distal surface. Outer margin of inner thicker zone bears numerous tubercular processes that project across outer thinner zone. Numerous radially oriented thickened ribs or plications extend across both zones of cingulum. Thinner outer zone of cingulum may be ornamented on its distal surface with small coni less than 1 µm in height.  Overall equatorial diameter 25(54)77 μm. Diameter of inner body 20(27)35 μm  More info 
Cingulizonates capistratus (Hoffmeister, Staplin & Malloy) Staplin & Jansonius, 1974 Radial, trilete, cingulate miospores. Amb convexly rounded triangular with rounded or roundly pointed apices. Trilete mark distinct to obscure, sutures straight, simple or accompanied by low, narrow. thickened labra, extending to equatorial margin of inner body. Intexine thin, laevigate, forming rounded triangular inner body. Exoexine normally closely adpressed to intexine and extended in the equatorial plane to form differentially thickened cingulum. Minor separation may exist in the equatorial plane between the intexine and exoexine. Cingulum bizonate, consisting of narrow, thick, inner zone and wider, thin, outer zone. Thin outer zone divisible into two components: an inner section containing a large number of radially orientated elongate vacuoles separated by narrow walls, and an outer part that is weakly striated and may bear an ornament of small coni. Cingulum approximately half spore radius in width.  Overall equatorial diameter 41(51)60 μm  More info 
Cirratriradites saturni (Ibrahim) Schopf, Wilson & Bentall, 1944 Radial, trilete, cingulizonate, camerate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending to the equatorial margin of inner body, often obscured by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine that extend decreasing in height to the equator of spore. Intexine thin, granulate, forming rounded triangular inner body. Exoexine relatively thick, extended in the equatorial plane to form differentially thickened zona consisting of two parts, an inner thickened part which appears to overlap the margin of the inner body on the distal surface and a wider thinner outer part which frequently appears faintly radially striated. Thinner outer section of zona may contain small radially orientated internal vacuoles. Distal exoexine bears prominent foveola in the polar region. Margin of foveola thickened to produce low thickened rim. A single foveola may be present with a circular or ‘clover leaf’ shape. Specimens with up to three separate distal foveolae also occur.   Overall equatorial diameter 59(73)100 μm. Diameter of inner body 45(58)79 μm  More info 
Colatisporites decorus (Bharadwaj & Venkatachala) Williams in Neves et al., 1973 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb circular, subcircular or rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct or indistinct, sutures extending to margin of intexine; straight, simple or accompanied by elevated narrow folds or labra, extending to or almost to the equatorial margin where they fuse laterally with the curvaturae. Intexine sometimes clearly separated from the exoexine, otherwise closely adpressed. Intexine may form indistinct inner body occupying at least four-fifths of the spore diameter. Degree of cameration variable but exoexine probably attached to intexine on both proximal and distal surfaces. Exoexine relatively thick, strongly infrapunctate.  Overall equatorial diameter 40(53)75 μm  More info 
Convolutispora circumvallata Clayton, 1971 Radial trilete acamerate miospores. Amb circular–subcircular. Trilete mark distinct or obscured by ornamentation, sutures simple or accompanied by wide labra, extending more than three-quarters of spore radius. Ornament on entire distal surface and equatorial portion of proximal surface consists of rounded anastomosing ridges, some of which may be fused together to form an imperfect reticulum. Ridges variable in width along length and often have expanded tops particularly where ridges join. The channels and irregular lumina between the ridges are normally equal to or wider than the mean width of the ridges. Ridges 3–12 µm high and 5–15 µm wide. Exine up to 5 µm thick.  Overall equatorial diameter 64(90)112 μm  More info 
Convolutispora major (Kedo) Turnau, 1978 Radial, trilete miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular, equatorial margin undulate. Trilete mark distinct to indistinct; often obscured by ornamentation. Sutures straight, accompanied by low broad labra, up to 8 µm wide, extending at least 50 % of spore radius and sometimes reaching almost to equatorial margin. Exine up to 11 µm thick (including ornament). Distal surface and more equatorial portion of proximal surface ornamented by dense irregular, imperfect reticulum of anastomosing variably thickened ridges, individual ridges 6–10 µm wide, 6 µm high, rounded in profile. Lumina irregular, branched, 3–10 µm wide. Ridges on equatorial portion of proximal surface shorter and occasionally wart-like. Contact areas often smooth.  Equatorial diameter 69(95)119 µm  More info 
Crassispora aculeata Neville, 1968 Radial, trilete miospores. Amb subcircular to rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending to or nearly to the spore margin; accompanied by elevated flexuous folds that extend, decreasing in height, to the inner margin of the equatorial crassitude with which they fuse laterally. Apical papillae common in the intertectal areas. Exine laevigate or infrapunctate, thickened in the equatorial region to form ill-defined crassitude with weak inner margin. Crassitude invaginated in the radial positions where it fuses with folds accompanying trilete sutures to form clearly defined curvaturae which run just on the proximal side of the equatorial margin. Distal surface of exine and equatorial margin ornamented with spinae and rare coni; elements 1.5–15 µm in height, and 1–5.5 µm in basal diameter. Approximately 20 elements project at the equatorial margin, elements normally discrete and more or less constant in size on individual specimens.  Overall equatorial diameter 56(74)96 µm  More info 
Crassispora kosankei (Potonié & Kremp) Bharadwaj, 1957 Radial, trilete, camerate-acamerate miospores. Amb circular to subcircular or oval. Trilete mark distinct to indistinct; rays either simple, straight, extending almost to the inner margin of the equatorial crassitude or split open to form triangular tear in the polar region. Exine characteristically thickened in the equatorial region to form crassitude; inner margin of crassitude ill-defined and commonly invaginated in radial positions. Distal surface of exine ornamented with numerous discrete coni up to 2 µm height and basal diameter. Elements project at equatorial margin but appear absent from the proximal surface. Apical papillae commonly present. Exine surface between coni, densely infrapunctate. Secondary folding common.  Overall equatorial diameter 40(64)105 µm  More info 
Crassispora maculosa (Knox) Sullivan, 1964 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb circular to subcircular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending half to three-quarters of spore radius, accompanied by low relatively narrow, thickened labra, individually up to 4 µm wide, which fuse equatorially into the variably defined equatorial crassitude which is frequently slightly invaginated in the radial positions. Crassitude narrow, weakly developed with ill-defined inner margin. When seen in off-polar compressions, the crassitude simulates curvaturae. Exine up to 3 µm thick, with dense granulate infrastructure. Distal surface of exine ornamented with scattered broad-based coni up to 2–3 µm in height, projecting at equatorial margin. Proximal surface laevigate.  Overall equatorial diameter 76(94)120 µm  More info 
Crassispora trychera Neves & loannides, 1974 Radial, trilete, variably camerate miospores, intexine probably attached proximally and separated to variable degrees over the distal surface. Amb subcircular, oval or irregular due to folding. Trilete mark usually distinct, sutures straight or sinuous, simple or accompanied by narrow flexuous folds, extending almost to the equatorial margin where they fuse laterally with curvaturae that are coincident for most of their length with the equatorial margin. Exoexine densely sculptured with coni and pilate elements, 1–3.5 µm high and 0.5–2.5 µm in width, with grana up to 1 µm in height and width, interspersed between elements. Distribution of ornament variable, sometimes dense but elsewhere sparse with unornamented areas. Equatorial margin thickened to form ill-defined crassitude with poorly delimited inner margin. Secondary compression folds commonly arranged in a concentric style close to the equatorial margin.  Overall equatorial diameter 48(58)67 µm  More info 
Densosporites anulatus (Loose) Smith & Butterworth, 1967 Radial, trilete, cingulate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular. Trilete mark indistinct, sutures simple, straight, extending to margin of inner body. Intexine thin, laevigate, forming rounded triangular to subcircular inner body. Exoexine thin in polar regions but extended and thickened in the equatorial plane to form undifferentiated cingulum of more or less uniform thickness. Cingulum narrow, 4(8)12 µm in width, tapering very slightly towards the equator, surface laevigate. Depending on compression, cingulum may appear to overlap equatorial portion of inner body. Two exine layers normally closely adpressed but sometimes showing weak evidence of separation in the equatorial plane. Cingulum occupies up to 40 % of total spore radius.  Overall equatorial diameter 26(40)56 µm  More info 
Dictyotriletes fimbriatus (Winslow) Kaiser, 1970 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular. Trilete mark distinct or obscured by ornamentation, sutures simple, straight, extending between half and two-thirds of spore radius. Exine bears characteristic reticulate ornament, muri present on proximal surface, reduced in height and density but commonly developed parallel to sutures of trilete mark. Muri 8–20 µm high and approximately 3 µm wide at base, with distinctive papillate crests. Muri enclose a variable number of large lumina up to 30 µm in diameter, variable in shape. Crests of muri deeply incised to about half their height to form blunt, slightly pointed or clavate papillae.  Overall equatorial diameter 69–115 µm. Diameter excluding ornament 52–80 µm  More info 
Dictyotriletes muricatus (Kosanke) Smith & Butterworth, 1967 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb circular to rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct or obscured by the ornamentation, sutures simple straight, extending between half and three-quarters of spore radius. Exine ornamented on entire distal surface and equatorial portion of proximal surface with muri which are up to 2 µm wide and 6–12 µm high. Muri enclose variable number of polygonal lumina which are of more or less uniform size on any individual but vary in size and number between individuals. Lumina vary in diameter up to 25 µm. Exine of lumina laevigate although infrequent small coni and spinae may occur.  Overall equatorial diameter 68(83)97 µm  More info 
Endosporites zonalis (Loose) Knox, 1950 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb of body and saccus circular to rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending to or almost to margin of inner body, accompanied by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine which extend, decreasing in height, almost to the equatorial margin of the exoexinal body. Ends of elevated exoexinal folds connected laterally with narrow, fine, curvatural ridges that in proximo-distal compression are located, for much of their length coincident with the equatorial margin of the saccus, the exception being in the radial positions where minor invagination takes place. Intexine thinner than exoexine, forms inner body that may possess peripheral taper-point compression folds, indicating significant separation of the two exine layers. Exoexine thin, granulate with fine narrow limbus, forms saccus and is commonly extensively folded.  Overall equatorial diameter 61(82)104 µm. Diameter of inner body 33(50)61 µm. Ratio of inner body to saccus diameter 46(59)77 µm  More info 
Grandispora lupata Turnau, 1975 Radial, trilete camerate miospores. Amb rounded triangular with convex sides and rounded apices. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, accompanied by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine which extend, decreasing in height, towards the equatorial margin of spore. Exoexine separated from intexine at least in the equatorial region and over part of distal surface. Intexine thin, forming rounded triangular inner body occupying up to three-quarters of the total spore diameter. Exoexine finely infrapunctate, relatively thick over distal surface and equatorial portion of proximal surface, thinner over contact areas which occupy approximately two-thirds of spore radius. Ornamentation of exoexine confined to the distal surface and consists of spinae with bulbous bases and sharply pointed terminations. Elements up to 2.5 µm high and 1.5 µm in basal diameter, varying between 1.5 and 9 µm (commonly 5 µm) apart.  Overall equatorial diameter 64(75)95 µm  More info 
Grandispora spinosa Hoffmeister, Staplin & Malloy, 1955 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb circular, subcircular or rounded triangular, outline of inner body more or less conformable and occupying two-thirds to four fifths of the spore diameter. Trilete mark distinct or obscured by folding, sutures straight, extending at least three-quarters of the inner body radius, commonly accompanied by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine that extend decreasing in height to the equatorial margin of spore. Intexine thin, laevigate, forms well-defined inner body with independent compression folds indicating major separation of the two exine layers. Exoexinal body wall 1–2.5 µm thick; exoexine infrapunctate, ornamented over entire distal surface and equatorial portion of proximal surface with sharply pointed coni and spinae, many of which may have bulbous bases. Elements with bulbous bases more commonly located in the polar regions with simple, sharply-pointed coni and spinae at the equator. Elements 2–8 µm high (commonly 2–5 µm) and 2–4 µm in basal diameter. Exoexine commonly folded due to compression.  Overall equatorial diameter 80(105)165 µm. Diameter of inner body 62(89)107 µm  More info 
Grumosisporites varioreticulatus (Neves) Smith & Butterworth, 1967 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb subcircular to oval. Trilete mark distinct, sometimes obscured, sutures straight, simple or with low, broad, thickened labra, extending between two-thirds and three-quarters of the spore radius. Intexine thin, forming irregular to sub-triangular inner body. Exoexine 2–3.5 µm thick, ornamented with often poorly defined reticulate sculpture. Muri narrow, up to 2 µm high enclosing lumina of irregular shape which may be up to 15 µm in diameter. Muri project at equatorial margin as low, broad-based conate projections. Reticulum best developed on distal surface and is most apparent at slightly elevated levels of focus.  Overall equatorial diameter 70–110 µm  More info 
Grumosisporites verrucosus (Butterworth & Williams) Smith & Butterworth, 1967 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb circular to rounded-triangular with undulating equatorial margin. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, simple or with low, narrow, thickened labra; extending between two-thirds and the full spore radius. Intexine thin, forms irregular, extensively folded, inner body which is separated from the exoexine over a significant part of its surface. The two layers appear to be in contact at least at the contact areas. Exoexine 1–4 µm in thickness, ornamented with variably shaped verrucae which show basal coalescence to form short, irregular ridges. Elements densely distributed and separated by narrow channels of unornamented exoexine. Up to 30 elements project at the equator to produce undulating margin. Verrucae up to 3 µm high at equator. Ornament reduced or absent on the proximal surface.  Overall equatorial diameter 42(53)64 µm  More info 
Hystricosporites multifurcatus (Winslow) Mortimer & Chaloner, 1967 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores-megaspores. Amb, excluding projecting ornament, rounded triangular with straight or slightly convex sides and rounded apices. Proximal surface flattened, low, pyramidal; distal surface inflated, hemispherical. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending at least four-fifths of spore radius, accompanied by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine which form an apical prominence up to 50 µm high. Folds decrease in height toward the equator. No obvious indication of separation of exine layers. Exine thick, surface scabrate, ornamented with long, parallel-sided or gently tapering processes which have expanded bases. Fusion between adjacent processes may occur at their bases and in the lower parts of the processes. Shafts of the processes appear hollow and have finely striated surfaces. Process termini are solid and characteristically ornamented with up to five recurved spinae producing a grapnel-like appearance. Processes 70–120 µm long, and excluding the expanded base, up to 10 µm wide. Recurved spinae creating grapnel terminations 1–5 µm long and 1–1.5 µm wide. Processes appear to be developed over entire distal surface with concentration in the equatorial region; 8–15 elements project at the equatorial margin. Some specimens show weak indication of ill-defined internal body.  Overall equatorial diameter excluding projecting ornament 90(173)233 µm  More info 
Knoxisporites hederatus (Ishchenko) Playford, 1962 Radial, trilete, cingulate miospores. Amb circular to subcircular, consisting of circular to subcircular spore body surrounded by more or less conformable cingulum. Trilete mark distinct, sutures simple, or accompanied by low, thickened labra up to 8 µm wide, which extend to the margin of the spore body. Sutures straight, extending between three-quarters to almost the full radius of the spore body. Exoexine extended in the equatorial plane to form undifferentiated cingulum, 6–16 µm in width. Distal surface bears conspicuous, widely spaced, relatively low, broad, smooth, rounded muri that are connected in several places to each other and to the cingulum. Muri slightly sinuous, irregular in pattern, 8–17 µm wide and 4–7 µm high. Remainder of exine laevigate.  Overall equatorial diameter 67(86)112 µm  More info 
Knoxisporites stephanephorus Love, 1960 Radial, trilete, cingulate miospores. Amb circular, subcircular to rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending to margin of spore body, simple or accompanied by low narrow thickened labra which typically become expanded equatorially to form triangular thickened areas that fuse to the proximal surface of the cingulum. Exine laevigate. Intexine forming spore body rarely discernible. Exoexine closely adpressed to intexine but extended in the equatorial plane to form thickened, undifferentiated cingulum, 5–15 µm wide. Exoexine developed into second ring of thickening mid way between the equator and the distal pole with irregular, radially-orientated thickened ribs in the inter-radial positions sometimes connecting it to the cingulum. A distal polar thickening 5–10 µm in diameter is also developed on the exoexine.  Overall equatorial diameter 40–90 µm  More info 
Knoxisporites triangularis Higgs, Clayton & Keegan, 1988 Radial, trilete, cingulate miospores. Amb subcircular to rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, sometimes open, extending to the inner margin of the cingulum, accompanied by broad prominent labra up to 20 µm in overall width. Intexine relatively thin; forms rounded triangular to subcircular inner body. Exoexine extended in equatorial plane to form undifferentiated cingulum, up to 14 µm wide. Proximal surface laevigate. Distal surface ornamented with three muri arranged in a triangular pattern with the apices of the triangle joining the cingulum in the inter-radial positions. Muri vary between 8–12 µm in width and are often slightly expanded where they fuse with the cingulum. Remainder of exine laevigate to scabrate.  Overall equatorial diameter 79(91)121 µm  More info 
Knoxisporites triradiatus Hoffmeister, Staplin & Malloy, 1955 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb subcircular, sometimes rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending to, or almost to, the equatorial margin of the spore body; sutures accompanied by low, broad, thickened labra. Intexine probably thin; forms inner spore body conformable in outline with the equatorial margin. Exoexine closely adpressed to intexine over proximal and distal surfaces but extended in the equatorial plane to form thick undifferentiated relatively narrow cingulum. Distal surface of exoexine bears thickened, Y-shaped structure with ribs of uniform thickness, extending from the distal pole to fuse with the cingulum in the inter-radial positions.  Overall equatorial diameter 50–88 µm  More info 
Kraeuselisporites echinatus Owens, Mishell & Marshall, 1976 Radial, trilete, camerate, zonate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular. In lateral compression proximal surface low, pyramidal; distal surface hemispherical. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending to margin of inner body, accompanied and obscured by elevated, flexuous folds of the exoexine, up to 8 µm high in the polar region but decreasing in height to the equatorial margin. Intexine thin, forming rounded triangular to subcircular inner body. Exoexine extended in the equatorial plane to produce strongly bizonate zona up to 25 µm wide. Exoexine thicker over distal surface of inner body and extending into the inner part of the zona, outer part of zona thinner and weakly striated. Two exine layers normally closely adpressed but minor separation may occur in the equatorial plane and over the more equatorial portions of the distal surface. Exoexine surface finely infrapunctate, distal surface bears distinctive ornament of large pointed coni and spinae with expanded bases; height of elements 4–14 µm, basal diameter 2–7 µm. Elements variable in distribution with maximum concentration usually occurring on the inner thicker zone of the zona close to the margin of the spore body.  Overall equatorial diameter 74(104)147 µm. Maximum equatorial diameter of inner body 54(71)82 µm  More info 
Kraeuselisporites hibernicus Higgs, 1975 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb subcircular to rounded triangular with convex sides and rounded or slightly pointed apices. Trilete mark distinct or obscure; sutures straight or sinuous, extending to margin of spore body, accompanied by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine which extend, decreasing in height, to the equatorial margin of the spore. Intexine thin, forming subcircular to rounded triangular inner body. Exoexine slightly thicker over distal surface and extended in the equatorial plane to form slightly fibrous zona 8–18 µm in width. Distal and more equatorial portions of proximal surface of exoexine ornamented with sparse to closely spaced spini, coni and grana. Elements either discrete or fused at their bases to form short irregular cristae or rugulae. Spinae 1–5 µm high and 0.5–2 µm in basal diameter, coni 1–3 µm in height and grana up to 1 µm high. Exoexine of proximal surface thin and crumpled and in many cases folded along the line of the margin of the intexine.  Overall equatorial diameter 64(85)116 µm. Diameter of the inner body 40(53) 70 µm  More info 
Kraeuselisporites ornatus (Neves) Owens, Mishell & Marshall, 1976 Radial, trilete, cingulizonate, camerate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular, in lateral profile proximal surface flattened, low or pyramidal; distal surface hemispherical. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending to, or almost to, the equatorial margin of spore body, accompanied by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine which extend decreasing in height to the margin. Exine composed of two layers. Intexine, thin, forms rounded triangular to subcircular inner body. Exoexine normally closely adpressed to the intexine but displays limited separation in the equatorial region. Exoexine extends to form bizonate cingulum. Maximum thickness of the exoexine developed over the distal surface and in the region of the cingulum adjacent to inner body margin. Outer zone of cingulum thinner and wider; sometimes appears weakly striated. Distal surface of exoexine ornamented with sharply pointed coni and spinae. Elements 2–10 µm high (commonly 3–5 µm) with the longest most slender elements located close to the junction of the body and cingulum.  Overall equatorial diameter 76–110 µm  More info 
Labiadensites fimbriatus (Waltz) Hacquebard & Barss, 1957 Radial, trilete, cingulate miospores. Amb circular to subcircular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending almost to spore body margin, accompanied by broad, flat labra, extending 6–10 µm on either side of the sutures and having undulate outer margins. Intexine laevigate to infrapunctate, forms circular to subcircular inner body. Exoexine extended in the equatorial plane to form smooth dense cingulum surrounded by more transparent, less robust, equatorial border which has a frilled membranous appearance. Boundary between the two parts of the cingulum is smooth. In some specimens outer membranous part of the cingulum appears to overlap thicker inner part particularly on the distal surface. Thinner outer membranous section may be variable in width creating undulate equatorial margin.  Overall equatorial diameter 90(115)144 µm. Diameter of the inner body 50(69)88 µm  More info 
Lophozonotriletes malevkensis Naumova in litt. Kedo, 1963 Radial, trilete, cingulate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular, inner body conformable in outline with the equatorial margin. Trilete mark distinct to indistinct, sutures simple, straight, extending to margin of the inner body, sometimes accompanied by low narrow labra. Intexine thin, laevigate, forms inner body conformable in outline with the equatorial margin. Exoexine closely adpressed to intexine over both proximal and distal surfaces but extended in the equatorial plane to form more or less undifferentiated uniform cingulum which occupies 20–35 % of the spore radius. Distal surface of exoexine ornamented in the region underlying the inner body with prominent rounded tubercles and verrucae, elements normally discrete but variable in size, height up to 6 µm and basal diameter varying between 3–15 µm. Elements commonly distributed in a concentric manner in the region adjacent to the body-cingulum boundary with a single, frequently larger, element developed in the distal polar region. Ornamentation absent from the majority of cingulum, margin smooth or minutely indented. Surface of exoexine between verrucose elements smooth or minutely granulate.  Overall equatorial diameter 32(42)52 µm  More info 
Lycospora pusilla (Ibrahim) Somers, 1972 Radial, trilete, cingulizonate miospores. Amb circular to very broadly rounded triangular, outline smooth or finely indented. Trilete mark distinct, sutures simple or accompanied by low narrow flexuous exoexinal folds which extend decreasing in height to equatorial margin. Sutures extend to inner body margin. Intexine thin forming rounded triangular inner body. Exoexine thin, extended in the equatorial plane to form narrow bizonate cingulum consisting of a narrow, inner, darker zone which may in part overlap the equatorial margin of the inner body and a wider, thinner, outer zone. Total width of cingulum up to 4 µm. Distal surface of exoexine and cingulum finely granulate or in some cases conate. Folding common.  Overall equatorial diameter 20(27)40 µm  More info 
Monilospora moniloformis Hacquebard & Barss, 1957 Radial, trilete, cingulizonate miospores. Amb subcircular to rounded triangular, with straight to slightly concave or convex sides and rounded apices. Trilete mark distinct, sutures simple, straight; extending from two-thirds to almost the full body radius, frequently open. Intexine thin, laevigate, forming inner body. Exoexine normally closely adpressed to intexine, although minor separation may occur in the equatorial plane. Exoexine extended in the equatorial plane to form trizonate differentiated cingulum consisting of a broad, thickened inner zone of uniform thickness with a sharp outer margin, a thinner median zone which is commonly narrow, and a distinctive crenulate, outer, thickened zone which varies considerably in form and intensity of crenulation. Surface of exoexine laevigate.  Overall equatorial diameter 58–86 µm  More info 
Murospora parthenopia Neves & loannides, 1974 Radial, trilete, cingulate miospores. Amb rounded triangular with concave, rarely straight sides, and variably rounded apices. Spore body rounded triangular with concave sides and rounded apices. Trilete mark distinct, sutures simple, straight, sometimes open, extending to equatorial margin of spore body. Exoexine extended in the equatorial plane to produce equatorial cingulum of variable width, expanded in the apical regions to form thickened valvae, 3–15 µm high and 9–20 µm wide. Inner margin of thickening may transgress onto the spore body on the distal surface; outer margin smooth or indented owing to minor fluting. Inter-radially, cingulum is variable in form, sometimes the same width as valvae but not thickened; or alternatively narrow to almost absent. Distal surface of spore body may develop rudimentary thickened kyrtome-like structures. Exine laevigate.  Overall equatorial diameter 26(34)50 µm  More info 
Radiizonates aligerens (Knox) Staplin & Jansonius, 1964 Radial, trilete, cingulizonate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular. Trilete mark indistinct, sutures when seen, simple, straight or flexuous, extending to, or almost to, inner body margin. Intexine thin, laevigate, forming poorly defined inner body that may show evidence of minor separation from the exoexine in the equatorial plane. Exoexine extended in the equatorial plane to form weakly bizonate cingulum consisting of a narrow darker inner zone which appears to overlap the equatorial margin of the inner body, particularly over the distal surface, and a wider thinner outer zone. Outer zone of cingulum bears a variable number of radially orientated elongate vacuoles that appear to be independently developed at two levels, presumably underlying both proximal and distal surfaces. Exoexine surface also bears numerous radially orientated striations and plications, which extend to the equatorial margin. Vacuoles separated by narrow walls. Distal polar exoexine may bear scattered grana or small verrucae.  Overall equatorial diameter 47(60)85 µm. Width of cingulum 14(19)27 µm  More info 
Raistrickia clavata Hacquebard 1957 emend. Playford, 1964 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb rounded to convexly triangular. Trilete mark distinct or obscured by ornamentation; sutures simple, straight, extending up to three-quarters of spore radius. Exine 2–3 µm thick and ornamented with conspicuous discrete, short, club-shaped, baculate processes. Elements 5–10 µm high, 2–4 µm in basal diameter with slightly tapering shafts before expanding into a bulbous or flattened termination 3–7 µm in width. Ornament predominantly developed on distal surface with minor elements on more equatorial portion of proximal surface.  Overall equatorial diameter 55(62)94 µm  More info 
Raistrickia condylosa Higgs, 1975 Radial, trilete, acamerate, miospores. Amb circular-subcircular. Trilete mark distinct or obscured by ornament, sutures simple, straight, extending between half and two-thirds spore radius. Exine 1–3 µm thick, bearing prominent baculose ornament, which may be densely or sparsely distributed but reduced on the proximal surface. Elements with slender shaft, long, parallel sided, slightly curved; surmounted by rounded or more commonly bulbous termination. Pointed elements rare. Bases of individual elements normally discrete but may fuse laterally to form low ridges 1–3 µm in height. Elements 5–30 µm long, 1–4 µm in width, bases 3–7 µm in diameter and bulbous terminations up to 6 µm wide.  Equatorial diameter excluding projecting ornament 66(87)120 µm  More info 
Raistrickia corynoges Sullivan, 1968 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb subcircular. Trilete mark distinct to obscured, sutures simple or with narrow thickened labra, extending at least three-quarters of spore radius. Exine 2–3 µm thick bearing dense ornament of prominent bacula. Bases of individual elements wide and sometimes coalescent. Shafts are commonly parallel sided, but may taper slightly, sometimes with terminal constrictions. Terminations truncated, rounded or pointed, rarely weakly multifurcate. Length of elements 8–26 µm, width 2–7 µm.  Equatorial diameter excluding projecting ornament 60(73)95 µm  More info 
Raistrickia fulva Artüz, 1957 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures simple, straight, extending two-thirds to three-quarters of spore radius. Distal surface and equatorial portion of proximal surface of exine bears predominantly baculate ornament with infrequent coni and verrucae. Baculae rarely exceed 3 µm in height, basal diameter exceptionally up to 10 µm but commonly less, terminations truncate or apiculate. Density of ornament variable with 15–20 processes commonly protruding at the equator. Exine between processes laevigate; up to 5 µm thick.  Overall equatorial diameter 39(52)69 µm  More info 
Reinschospora speciosa (Loose) Schopf, Wilson & Bentall, 1944 Radial, trilete, miospores. Amb including corona rounded triangular to circular. Outline of spore body triangular with rounded apices and concave sides. Trilete mark distinct, sutures simple or with weak narrow low labra; straight, extending almost to equatorial margin. Well-developed corona composed of setae up to 1 µm wide and more or less in full lateral contact throughout their length. Corona attached to exine just proximally of the equatorial margin. Maximum width of corona, including overlap on proximal side, 17–28 µm; occurs in the inter-radial position. In the radial positions the corona may be as narrow as 2 µm and may be attached nearer to the proximal pole so that on compression it may appear to cross the angles of the spore body. Exine moderately thick, laevigate to scabrate, folding rare.  Equatorial diameter of spore body 50(58)95 µm  More info 
Remysporites magnificus (Horst) Butterworth & Williams, 1958 Radial trilete camerate miospores. Amb ovoid to circular. Margin smooth to minutely undulating. Trilete mark distinct or obscured by elevated exoexinal folds which extend, decreasing in height, to equatorial margin. Sutures, when seen, extend almost to inner body margin. Intexine relatively thick, laevigate, with independent compression folds indicating complete separation from exoexine over most of its surface. Exoexine thin, forms highly folded exoexinal body; surface laevigate to microreticulate. Exoexine of contact areas may develop fine vermiculate ornament.  Overall equatorial diameter 84–255 µm  More info 
Reticulatisporites carnosus (Knox) Neves, 1964 Radial, trilete, cingulate miospores. Amb broadly rounded triangular to subcircular, margin usually smooth, but occasionally undulate to uneven or highly involute. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, simple or with low narrow labra, extending to inner margin of the cingulum. Intexine relatively thin forming subcircular to rounded triangular inner body. Exoexine extended equatorially to form differentially thickened cingulum consisting of three zones, each varying from 5 to 17 µm in width. The inner thickened zone is broader and more prominent than the outer marginal thickened zone, which is commonly reduced or discontinuous. The thinner median zone may be reduced to a mere line but in other specimens may be of significant width. Radially orientated thickenings may be present on the distal surface and take the form of a Y-shaped structure attached to the cingulum in the inter-radial positions. Faint proximal thickenings may arise from the radial positions but they scarcely extend poleward beyond the inner thickened zone of the cingulum.  Overall equatorial diameter 67(84)90 µm  More info 
Retispora lepidophyta (Kedo) Playford, 1976 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb convexly rounded triangular to subcircular. Trilete mark distinct; sutures straight or slightly curved, extending to margin of the inner body, accompanied by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine which extend decreasing in height to almost the equatorial margin of the spore. Ends of exoexinal folds fuse laterally with curvaturae imperfectae, which are slightly invaginated in the radial position but are coincident with the equatorial margin for much of their length. Intexine thin; forms subcircular to rounded triangular inner body which occupies half to three-quarters of the spore diameter. Sometimes eccentrically placed, suggesting proximal attachment only. Exoexine ornamented with distal reticulum consisting of subcircular, polygonal or irregularly shaped lumina separated by narrow muri. Muri 0.5–2 µm wide; bear an ornament of small coni and spinae up to 2 µm high. Muri commonly exhibit progressive breakdown to form short rugulae or eventually residual coni and verrucae. Lumina up to 4 µm in diameter, variable in shape and size even on same specimen. Narrow limbus may be present at the equatorial margin, which may in part coincide with curvaturae imperfectae. Apical papillae sometimes present. Compressional folds common.  Overall equatorial diameter 40(57)92 µm  More info 
Rotaspora fracta Schemel, 1950 Radial, trilete acamerate miospores. Amb circular, subcircular or rounded triangular, spore body triangular with slightly concave sides and rounded apices. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, simple or accompanied by low narrow labra, extending almost to spore body margin. Width of zona more or less constant, with narrow thickening at the periphery forming equatorial rim. In compressed specimens the zona lies over the distal surface of the body in the radial positions thereby appearing narrower than in the inter-radial areas. Exine of body and zona laevigate. Folding rare.  Overall equatorial diameter 24–40 µm. Diameter of spore body 17–24 µm  More info 
Rotaspora knoxi Butterworth & Williams, 1958 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb subtriangular, with broadly rounded apices, to subcircular, outline of body more triangular. Trilete mark distinct; sutures straight, simple or with low narrow labra, extending between three-quarters and almost the full radius of the body. Exine laevigate. Zona widest (up to 6 µm) in the inter-radial position but significantly reduced at the apices. Zona normally bizonate with inner thicker zone of more or less uniform width, apparently overlapping margin of inner body at least on the distal surface. Outer thinner zone variable in width.  Overall equatorial diameter 26(32)44 µm  More info 
Schopfites claviger Sullivan, 1968 Radial, trilete, acamerate or camerate miospores. Amb subcircular or circular. Trilete mark distinct or indistinct, sutures simple, straight, extending almost to the equatorial margin. Intexine thin (1–1.5 µm), indistinctly separated from the exoexine to form indistinct inner body occupying approximately three-quarters of spore diameter. Distal surface and equatorial region of exoexine ornamented with pila, rounded bacula and rare verrucae and coni. Elements 1–5 µm high and 1–3 µm in width (Higgs et al., 1988, quoted mean height and width as 3 µm and 1 µm respectively). Elements are normally discrete, although the density and distribution of the ornament is variable, giving rise to a patchy appearance on individual specimens. Proximal surface of exoexine laevigate. Exine thickness 1–2 µm.  Overall equatorial diameter 40(55)68 µm  More info 
Schulzospora campyloptera (Waltz) Hoffmeister, Staplin & Malloy, 1955 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores with a bilaterally symmetrical appearance due to the presence of an elliptical saccus-like exoexinal structure. Amb oval but occasionally sub-circular. Trilete mark distinct to indistinct; sutures straight, extending up to two-thirds of spore body radius, sutures often of unequal length on individual specimens. Intexine forms circular to oval inner body; long axis of inner body rarely orientated obliquely to the long axis of the miospore. Exoexine infrapunctate with a narrow dark zone often occurring where the saccus overlies the equatorial margin of the spore body. Radial compression folds infrequently developed.  Long axis dimension 76(94)114 µm. Diameter of inner body 46(54)70 µm  More info 
Schulzospora ocellata (Horst) Potonié & Kremp, 1956 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores with a bilateral appearance due to the presence of an elliptical saccus-like exoexinal structure. Amb oval to subcircular, body oval to subcircular. Trilete mark distinct to indistinct; sutures simple, straight, extending between two-thirds and almost the full body radius. Exoexine infrapunctate with a narrow dark zone often occurring where the saccus overlies the equatorial margin of the spore body. Longest axis of the inner body usually oblique to the long axis of the miospore, rarely at right angles to it. Folding infrequent.  Overall equatorial diameter 61(90)130 µm. Diameter of inner body 56(66)77 µm  More info 
Schulzospora rara Kosanke, 1950 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores with a bilaterally symmetrical appearance due to presence elliptical saccus-like exoexinal structure. Amb oval to ovoid. Inner body circular to oval with long axis parallel to the long axis of the miospore overall. Trilete mark not always visible; sutures simple, straight extend to, or almost to, inner body margin. Two of the sutures are commonly orientated parallel or nearly parallel to the long axis of the miospore with the third suture at right angles to them. Intexine of inner body relatively thin, laevigate or finely infrapunctate; long axis of inner body approximately three-quarters of miospore long axis, short axis of inner body almost equal in width to the short axis of the miospore. Exoexine thicker than intexine, laevigate to finely infrapunctate.  Overall equatorial diameter 52(77)105 µm. Diameter of inner body 40(59)80 µm  More info 
Spelaeotriletes arenaceus Neves & Owens, 1966 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb convexly triangular, or subcircular to oval when secondarily folded. Trilete mark distinct; sutures simple, straight, extending to equatorial margin of spore body, commonly accompanied by narrow elevated folds of the exoexine which extend, decreasing in height, almost to the equatorial margin of the spore, where they fuse into the invaginated narrow ridge of the curvaturae. Curvaturae coincident with equatorial margin over most of their length. Intexine thin, forms indistinct inner body. Intexine thin, attached to exoexine, only in the region of the proximal surface, forms saccus-like structure. Exoexine surface infrapunctate, bears a composite ornament of small squat bacula, rounded and flat topped verrucae, pila, and pointed and truncated coni; elements 1–2 µm high and 1–2.5 µm in basal diameter. Ornament variably distributed but mainly on distal surface with minor encroachment onto proximal surface in the radial positions. Elements normally discrete but occasionally showing basal fusion with adjacent elements to create short irregular ridges.  Overall equatorial diameter 82–144 µm. Diameter of inner body 44–90 µm  More info 
Spelaeotriletes balteatus (Playford) Higgs, 1975 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular. Trilete mark distinct to obscure; sutures, when seen, extend to margin of ill-defined inner body, straight and accompanied by narrow sinuous exoexinal folds which extend to or almost to equatorial margin. Ends of exoexinal folds fuse laterally with curvaturae which are more or less coincident with equatorial margin except in radial positions where minor invagination occurs. Intexine often barely perceptible; forms ill-defined inner body, which occupies approximately half miospore diameter with outline conformable with equatorial margin. Exoexine thicker than intexine. Proximal surface laevigate except at the radial margins. Distal surface densely and uniformly ornamented with small, wide-based spinae up to 3 µm in height together with infrequent coni and grana. Elements may be discrete or may be basally fused to form low rugulae or cristae. Equatorial margin of exoexine thickened due to presence of curvatural ridges.  Overall equatorial diameter 42–102 µm. Diameter of inner body 30–62 µm  More info 
Spelaeotriletes cabotii Utting, Keppie & Giles, 1989 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb sub-triangular with rounded apices and convex to straight sides. Intexinal inner body poorly defined but when visible conformable in outline with equatorial margin. Inner body occupies 50–80 % of overall diameter. Trilete mark distinct; sutures straight, extending almost to margin of intexine, accompanied by elevated sinuous exoexinal folds up to 2 µm high which extend, decreasing in height to the equatorial margin. Curvaturae rarely visible. Exoexine up to 2 µm thick; infragranulate. Distal surface of exoexine ornamented with closely spaced verrucae with rounded outlines and rounded profiles (up to 5.5 µm in basal diameter, 1–2 µm high); individual verrucae usually surmounted by single small spina or conus (up to 1 µm high and 1 µm in basal diameter). Rare small coni, spinae and baculae may occur between verrucae. Verrucae may coalesce towards distal pole to form rugulae. Small coni, spini and baculae more common in equatorial region than in distal polar region.  Overall 49(69)93 µm. Inner body 36(46)65 µm  More info 
Spelaeotriletes giganteus Loboziak & Clayton, 1988 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb convexly rounded triangular to almost circular. Trilete mark distinct; sutures straight, commonly accompanied by elevated folds which extend, decreasing in height, almost to the equatorial margin of the spore where they fuse with curvaturae perfectae which are invaginated in radial positions. Exine slightly thickened at the equatorial margin to form limbus. Exoexine scabrate to punctate; irregularly ornamented on the distal surface, at the equatorial margin and around the curvaturae with mixed rounded elements which are typically grana but may include sparse verrucae. Apiculate and biform elements are rare. Ornament reduced or absent in the contact areas. Intexine of inner body thin, laevigate; inner body rarely distinct, occupies one-third to one half of the spore diameter, attached to exoexine on proximal surface only.  Overall equatorial diameter 105(142)171 µm  More info 
Spelaeotriletes owensi Loboziak & Alpern, 1978 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures obscured by elevated sinuous folds of the exoexine which extend, decreasing in height, to the equatorial margin. Well-defined inner body formed by thin intexine; outline circular to subcircular. Equatorial margin of exoexine together with that part of the proximal surface which is invaginated opposite the ends of the trilete sutures, thickened to form equatorial border. Equatorial border and distal surface ornamented with fine vermiculate or reticulate ridges. Ridges surmounted by small spinae. Exoexine of contact areas laevigate.  Equatorial diameter 60(77)109 µm. Diameter of inner body 32(46) 68 µm  More info 
Spinozonotriletes uncatus Hacquebard, 1957 Radial, trilete, camerate miospores. Amb convexly rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight though often obscured; extend to margin of inner body, accompanied by elevated flexuous folds of exoexine which extend decreasing in height, to the equatorial margin. Intexine thin, forms inner body, which is conformable in outline with the amb of the spore and occupies approximately three-quarters of the total spore diameter. Exoexine 3–6 µm thick, extended in the equatorial plane to form solid flange. Exoexine prominently ornamented with large spini which are concentrated in the equatorial region, commonly reduced in the distal polar region and completely absent from contact areas of proximal surface. Spini have broad, often bulbous bases and sharply pointed terminations; height 4–19 µm and basal diameter 2–6 µm. Spina size variable between specimens but uniform on any one specimen.  Overall equatorial diameter excluding projecting ornament 74(104)150 µm  More info 
Torispora securis (Balme) Alpern, Doubinger & Horst, 1973 Monolete miospores. Amb ovoid, subtriangular or irregular. Miospore consists of ovoid to subcircular spore body with a pronounced patinate crassitude either over the distal surface or the distal and lateral surfaces. Monolete mark usually distinct, suture straight or curved; simple; length approximately three-quarters or more of the spore body radius. Suture commonly parallel to the long axis of the spore. Intexine of spore body relatively thin, laevigate. Exoexine thickened over part of the distal surface or at least in part in the equatorial plane to form patinate crassitude which may in some cases overlap a significant part of the spore body on the proximal surface. Profile of crassitude in compressed specimens crescentic or sub-rectangular, surface smooth or finely roughened. Boundary between crassitude and spore body gradational or abrupt.  Overall equatorial diameter 26(34)44 µm. Diameter of inner body 15(21)28 µm  More info 
Tripartites trilinguis (Horst) Smith & Butterworth, 1967 Radial trilete miospores. Amb triangular, sides highly concave, apices rounded, giving trifoliate appearance. Trilete mark distinct, sutures simple, straight; extending half to two-thirds of spore radius. Exine extended laterally in the equatorial plane to form prominent rounded plicated or corrugated auriculae in the radial positions. Thickness of auriculae up to 6 µm, width 24–32 µm. Inter-radial areas deeply incised, narrow, occupied by markedly reduced inter-radial crassitude. Proximal exine laevigate but distal exine bears small well-spaced grana on the radial apices in an arc-shaped pattern between the ends of the trilete sutures and the inner margin of the auriculae. Exine of spore body thin.  Overall equatorial diameter 32(44)51 µm  More info 
Tripartites vetustus Schemel, 1950 Radial, trilete, miospores. Amb triangular, sides slightly to strongly concave, apices rounded or truncated. Trilete mark distinct; sutures straight simple or accompanied by low narrow labra extending within a very short distance of the equatorial margin. Exine extended laterally in the equatorial plane to form well-developed auriculae in the radial positions, inter-radial connections between auriculae reduced or absent. Distal surface of auriculae plicated; remainder of exine laevigate.  Overall equatorial diameter 30(42)50 µm  More info 
Triquitrites sculptilis (Balme) Smith & Butterworth, 1967 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb irregularly triangular with more or less straight sides and rounded, flat or lobate apices. Shape dependent on the extent of exine ornamentation. Proximal surface flattened, distal surface inflated hemispherical. Trilete mark distinct to indistinct, sutures simple, straight; extending from two-thirds to the full spore radius. Proximal exine laevigate but distal exine ornamented with irregular pattern of ridges and verrucae. Verrucae variable in size and distribution; frequent fusion occurs between the bases of adjacent elements to produce an ill-defined reticulate pattern. Thickening of the exine at radial apices occurs to produce a variable crassitude. When associated with verrucae, this projects at the equatorial margin. Crassitudes, may in some cases, extend into inter-radial areas. Crassitudes vary from 2–7 µm across when measured along a given radius, and are 10–17 µm in width. Exine moderately thick.  Overall equatorial diameter 25(37)45 µm  More info 
Triquitrites trivalvis (Waltz) Potonié & Kremp, 1956 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb triangular to sub-triangular with rounded apices and straight to concave sides. Trilete mark distinct; sutures simple, straight, extend from two-thirds to the full radius of the spore body. Spore body more or less laevigate. Exoexine extended in the equatorial plane to produce variable cingulum which is narrow (2–4 µm) in the inter-radial areas but greatly expanded in the radial positions to form prominent auriculae. Outer margins of auriculae thickened and laterally expanded to create large, homogenous cushion-like caps with a smooth to crenulate surface. Caps approximately 7 µm across when measured along a radius, and are 30 µm wide.  Overall equatorial diameter 38(51)66 µm. Diameter of spore body 24(34)44 µm  More info 
Umbonatisporites distinctus Clayton, 1971 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb circular, subcircular or oval. Trilete mark often distinct; sutures when seen, simple, straight, extending between one-third and one-half the spore radius. Exine, 1–3 µm thick, ornamented on distal surface and equatorial portion of proximal surface with cylindrical shaft-like elements which are 2–10 µm high and 1–3 µm wide, with a prominent constriction near the top and a second near the base. Terminus of each shaft-like element normally flat but commonly surmounted by a single spina or conus up to 4.5 µm high. Rare small coni and spini may be interspersed between the longer biform elements. Ornamentation elements variable in size between specimens but commonly uniform on any single specimen. Contact areas laevigate.  Overall equatorial diameter excluding ornamentation 43(70)126 µm  More info 
Umbonatisporites variabilis Hibbert & Lacey, 1969 Radial, trilete, acamerate miospores. Amb circular to subcircular. Trilete mark frequently indistinct or torn; sutures when seen are short, simple and straight, extending up to one-sixth of spore radius. Exine 1–2 µm thick, ornamented on distal surface and equatorial portion of the proximal surface with variable squat biform baculate or pilate projections arranged randomly over the surface. Elements variable in shape and size on any one specimen; individual elements up to 4.5 µm high and 1.0–1.5 µm in basal diameter, widening towards the apex. At the terminus of each element are one to three rounded heads, each surmounted by a single thin tapering spina. Between the larger biform elements, slender tapering spinae 2–4 µm long and up to 1 µm wide may occur.  Overall equatorial diameter excluding projecting ornament 95(106)134 µm  More info 
Vallatisporites agadesi Loboziak & Alpern, 1978 Radial, trilete, cingulizonate miospores. Amb sub-triangular to subcircular. Trilete mark distinct, sutures obscured by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine which extend, decreasing in height, to the equatorial margin. Exine composed of two layers. Intexine forming inner body, thin with several concentric plications. Exoexine rugulate, completely enclosing inner body and extended in the equatorial plane to form a wide cingulizona containing a large number of small, radially orientated, internal vacuoles. Maximum thickness of cingulizona developed in the region adjacent to inner body. Distal surface of exoexine bears vermiculate to coarsely reticulate ornamentation. Ornamentation elements variable; irregular convolutions and rugulae common; verrucae and coni infrequent.  Equatorial diameter 60(69)80 µm. Width of cingulizona 10(13)18 µm  More info 
Vallatisporites drybrookensis Playford & McGregor, 1993 Radial, trilete, cingulizonate miospores. Amb rounded triangular with convex sides and rounded apices, sometimes subcircular. Trilete mark distinct; sutures straight, extending to the margin of the inner body, accompanied by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine which extend, decreasing in height, to the equatorial margin. Intexine thin, forming rounded triangular inner body, frequently folded independently and withdrawn from the exoexine at least in the equatorial plane. Exoexine thin over proximal surface but thicker over distal surface and extended in the equatorial plane to form variably thickened cingulizona consisting of two zones. Inner thinner zone contains numerous internal radially orientated vacuoles separated by thin walls. Outer zone thicker and separated from the inner thinner zone by an irregular boundary coinciding with the limits of vacuolation. Distal surface of exoexine ornamented with pointed or rounded coni up to 3 µm high and 3.5 µm in basal diameter, interspersed with galeae consisting of a bulbous base surmounted by a small sharply pointed conus. Ornamentation reduced over the outer part of the cingulum to small coni. Well-developed cuniculus developed in the equatorial plane adjacent to the margin of the intexine.  Overall equatorial diameter 50(62)70 µm  More info 
Vallatisporites hystricosus (Winslow) Byvsheva 1985 Radial, trilete, cinguli-camerate miospores. Amb rounded triangular to subcircular. Outline of inner body may be conformable with equatorial margin of spore or more circular resulting in the equatorial cinguli-zonate structure being wider in the radial positions. Trilete mark distinct, sutures straight, extending to margin of inner body, accompanied by elevated, flexuous folds of the exoexine, up to 4 µm in the polar region but decreasing in height and extending to the equatorial margin. Intexine thin, laevigate or finely infrapunctate, forming inner body. Exoexine closely adpressed to intexine except in the equatorial plane where a well developed cuniculus indicates limited separation. Exoexine extended in the equatorial plane to form bizonate cingulum consisting of a thinner, inner, extensively vacuolated zone with closely spaced radially orientated vacuoles separated by narrow walls, and a thicker, outer zone. Distal surface of exoexine bears galeate ornament of variable density; elements are largest and most densely distributed in the distal polar region and finer and less densely distributed towards the equatorial margin. Small, sharply pointed coni may be located in the spaces between the galeate elements. Individual galeae up to 10 µm high and 7 µm in basal diameter, consisting of a rounded basal boss surmounted by a sharply pointed, slender spina. Fusion between bases of adjacent elements forms irregular vermiculate elements with common spinose crests, particularly in the polar region. Numerous elements project at the equatorial margin.  Overall equatorial diameter 46–84 µm  More info 
Vallatisporites vallatus Hacquebard, 1957 Radial, trilete, camerate, cingulizonate miospores. Amb convexly rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct to indistinct, sutures straight, extending to margin of inner body, accompanied by low, slightly elevated exoexinal folds which decrease in height towards the ends of the sutures. Height of folds in polar region approximately 2.5 µm. Exine two layered. Intexine thin, forms inner body conformable in outline with equatorial margin, surface laevigate. Exoexine closely adpressed to intexine over proximal and distal surface but separated at least to some extent in the equatorial plane where a well-developed narrow cuniculus is developed. Exoexine thin over proximal surface but slightly thicker distally and extended in the equatorial plane to form differentially thickened tapering cingulum. Cingulum consists of inner thicker zone that appears in part to overlap the equatorial margin of the inner body, up to 8 µm wide. In many specimens large numbers of small elongate internal vacuoles, separated by narrow walls, appear to be located within this portion of the cingulum. Individual vacuoles up to 5 µm in length. Outer part of cingulum thin and sometimes weakly radially striated. Distal exoexine bears a dense ornament of coni, grana and small spini, elements up to 3 µm in height and 2 µm in basal diameter. Elements normally discrete but some basal coalescence occurs. Ornament more sparsely distributed on the cingulum and at the equatorial margin is limited to small conate projections.  Overall equatorial diameter 50(59)70 µm. Diameter of spore body 35–44 µm  More info 
Vallatisporites verrucosus Hacquebard, 1957 Radial, trilete, camerate, cingulizonate miospores. Amb convexly rounded triangular. Trilete mark distinct or indistinct if obscured by ornament; sutures straight, extending to margin of inner body, simple or accompanied by elevated flexuous folds of the exoexine, up to 4 µm high in polar region, which extend, decreasing in height, to the margin of the body or onto the cingulum. Exine two layered. Intexine thin, laevigate, forms inner body conformable with the equatorial outline. Exoexine closely adpressed to intexine in proximal and distal positions but separated from intexine in the equatorial plane where a well-developed cuniculus is located. Exoexine extended in the equatorial plane to form poorly differentiated bizonate cingulum. Inner thicker zone of cingulum overlaps the equatorial margin of inner body and may contain numerous internal radially orientated vacuoles. Outer zone of cingulum thinner and narrower. In some specimens differentiation of the cingulum is difficult to discern. Distal surface of exoexine densely ornamented with discrete or confluent verrucae up to 6 µm in diameter. Elements may fuse to form short irregular ridges. Verrucae are most densely distributed in the distal polar region where the largest elements are also located. Towards the equatorial margin, elements become progressively smaller and more sparsely distributed. Equatorial margin uneven but rarely displays coarse projecting ornamentation. Verrucae surmounted by small mammoid coni may be present in the distal polar region.  Overall equatorial diameter 55–75 µm. Diameter of inner body 41–47 µm   More info 
Reduviasporonites
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of outer cell wall. Shows scabrous nature of the Moura specimens. Some evidence of pyrite deformation of the cell wall material is present.  Width of cell 47µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Slightly ovoid cell with partially shrunken inner body.  Length of cell 115µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Nearly rectangular outline, short cell  Length of cell 67µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Short cell with rectangular outline and small masses of cell material  Length of cell 45µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with constricted terminal rims  Length of cell 70µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Poorly developed ‘Y’ shaped cell  Length of cell 61µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Spindle shaped cell  Length of cell 49µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Very small rounded cell  Length of cell 32µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with rectangular outline   Length of cell 69µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Short cell with rectangular outline  Length of cell 45µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Very poorly developed ‘Y’ shaped cell   Length of cell 66µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 2 joined cells  Length of cells 44 and 67µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell with indistinct ovoid inner body.  Length of cell 90µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Flask shaped cell  Length of cell 59µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Very poorly developed ‘Y’ shaped cell   Length of cell 61µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell  Length of cell 87µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Small ovoid cell with poorly developed terminal rims  Length of cell 40µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Small cell with rectangular outline  Length of cell 59µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of very short ovoid cells  Mean length of cells 25µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Flask shaped cell with distinct inner and outer wall layers  Length of cell 65µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Flask shaped cell  Length of cell 79µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Long cell with semi transparent outer cell wall  Length of cell 100µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Flask and spindle shaped cells joined  Length of cells 57 and 46µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell with indistinct ovoid inner body; the folds perpendicular to the long axis of the cell indicate the termini of the inner body.  Length of cell 129µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain with apparent pendant inner body still attached to the adjacent cell  Mean length of cells 45µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Discontinuous terminal rim present; inner body not apparent.  Length of cell 62µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Discontinuous terminal rim present; inner body not apparent. Left side shows incipient weakness of the outer wall shown by separation of the rim from the rest of the wall. Cell material distinct, granular in appearance.  Length of cell 56µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image BILLA_262m_SGM_3_2. Discontinuous terminal rim present; incipient weakness of the outer wall shown by separation of the rim from the rest of the wall  Length of cell 83µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Discontinuous terminal rim present; incipient weakness of the outer wall shown by separation of the rim from the rest of the wall  Length of cell 83µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Discontinuous terminal rim present; incipient weakness of the outer wall shown by separation of the rim from the rest of the wall  Length of cell 57µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Discontinuous terminal rim present  Length of cell 99µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image BILLA_262m_SGM_4. Showing granular cell material.  Length of cell 99µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 To the right of the picture the inner body is visible, closely adpressed to the inner surface of the cell wall. Granular cell material present.  Length of cell 102µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image BILLA_262m_SGM_5. Inner body can be seen folded back approximately half way along the cell. This may account for lighter colour in the left side of the cell.  Length of cell 102µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Slightly ovoid to rectangular cell with no distinct inner body or folds; also with discontinuous terminal rims.  Length of cell 118µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Well developed terminal rims and cell material. Inner body believed to be adpressed and hence optically not distinct from the main cell wall.  Length of cell 84µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell with indistinct terminal rims  Length of cell 53µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell with indistinct terminal rims  Length of cell 50µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain of ovoid cells   Length of cells 15, 20 and 17 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Detail of specimen shown in image Flowerpt 66398_Y41_1. Chain of ovoid cells. The cells to the right both possibly contain slightly shrunken inner bodies. In the middle cell the inner body is attached to the inner surface of the terminal rims on both sides of the cell. Terminal rims are not well displayed between the two right hand cells. Both the inner body wall and the outer cell wall appear to be smooth and less than 1µm thick.  Length of cells 15, 20 and 17 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain of 5 cells; left outer cell without a terminal thickening or rim.  Mean length of cells 15µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Poorly preserved ?double chain  Mean length of cells 15µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain with longitudinally collapsed cells.  Mean length of cells 15µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain of three cells; neither of the outer two cells has an outer terminal rim or thickening.   Mean length of cells 11µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain of cells; neither has an outer terminal rim or thickening. Left cell shows inner body through the crack in the outer cell wall.   Mean length of cells 16µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Slightly ovoid cell with inner body delineated by folds.  Length of cell 92µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Two recently separated cells.  Mean length of cells 12µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Two cells in chain.   Mean length of cells 14µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Two cells in chain.  Mean length of cells 12µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Two cells in chain.  Mean length of cells 11µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Single cell  Cell length 19µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Single cell; perhaps an ‘end cell’. Right side of cell has no terminal rim or thickening. Left side with thickening, possibly was part of a chain in which it was the ‘end cell’.  Cell length 20µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain with longitudinally collapsed cells.  Mean length of cells 14µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain with relatively well preserved cells close in form to some of the Alpine specimens. The right edge of the right hand cell appears not to have been connected to another cell. The left cell has clearly been detached from another cell.  Lengths of cells 12, 13 and 22µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain with longitudinally collapsed cells.  Mean length of cells 14µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain with relatively well preserved cells close in form to some of the specimens from the Mazzin Member, Austria. The right edge of the right hand cell appears not to have been connected to another cell. The left cell has clearly been detached from another cell.  Mean length of cells 12µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell with indistinct ovoid inner body; the fold perpendicular to the long axis of the cell indicates one terminus of the inner body.  Length of cell 110µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain with longitudinally collapsed cells. Neither of the outer cells appears to have been connected to other cells.  Mean length of cells 15µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 A pair of joined cells with considerable overlap. Neither of the outer cells appears to have been connected to other cells.  Mean length of cells 16µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 A pair of joined cells. Neither of the outer cells appears to have been connected to other cells.  Mean length of cells 13µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain with longitudinally collapsed cells.   Mean length of cells 13µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 A pair of joined cells. The left hand cell does not appear to have been connected to other cells.   Mean length of cells 18µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 A pair of joined cells.  Mean length of cells 12µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain of 4 longitudinally collapsed cells. Left cell displays strong concentric fold pattern, perhaps indicating a folded inner body or perhaps a system of invaginations in the outer cell wall.  Mean length of cells 13µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain of 3 cells. All cells display strong concentric fold pattern.  Lengths of cells 11, 13 and 14µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain of 6 cells. Most cells display strong concentric fold pattern. There appears to be continuity across the folding patterns of the cells suggesting a possible series of connected inner bodies.  Mean length of cells 13µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain of 4 cells and a single off line cell possibly the remaining cell of a branch of cells. Cells distinctly overlap each other.  Mean length of cells 12µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Slightly ovoid cell with indistinct inner body, though folds delineating its outline may be present. Terminal face turned towards the viewer.  Length of cell 118µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 A pair of joined cells. Both cells appear to lack an outward facing joining structure. These were probably never part of a larger chain.   Mean length of cells 13µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 A pair of joined cells. Both cells appear to lack an outward facing joining structure. These were probably never part of a larger chain.   Mean length of cells 13µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain of 5 cells each with a concentric to rectilinear pattern of folds.  Mean length of cells 13µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Chain of three rigid cells. Neither of the outer cells appears to have been connected to other cells.  Mean length of cells 14µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Pair of cells. Left hand cell has an invaginated or thickened left margin possible suggesting connection with other cells. Right cell seems to lack means of connection.  Mean length of cells 13µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Single cell with a concentric to rectilinear pattern of folds.  Approx. length 15 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Single cell with a concentric pattern of folds.  Approx. length 15 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Single cell with a concentric to rectilinear pattern of folds.  Approx. length 15 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Single cell with fold or invagination at the right margin.  Approx. length 15 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Barrel shaped cell. May have been part of a chain. Has two possible outer invaginations which may indicate site of two previous connections.  Approx. length 15 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Damaged, poor specimen  Length of cell 150µm approx.  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Single cell irregularly arranged fold  Approx. length 15 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Single cell with a concentric to rectilinear pattern of folds.  Approx. length 15 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites catenulatus Wilson 1962 Single cell with a discontinuous concentric pattern of folds  Approx. length 15 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with one indistinct terminal rim  Cell length 53µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 2 cell chain with short rounded cells  Lengths of cells 57 and 60µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with one indistinct terminal rim and distinct cell material  Cell length 43µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell  Cell length 73µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Short chain with diverse cells  Cell lengths 26, 64, 28, 61 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with distinct cell material  Cell length 55µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of 3 cells each with rounded, dark amorphous mass of cell material.  Cell lengths 35, 40 and 39µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Damaged, poor specimen  Length of cell 150µm approx.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell lacking inner body  Cell length 63µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cells with apparent oblique connection  Cell lengths 33 and 32µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Two flask-shaped cells  Cell lengths 61 and 70µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Small rounded cell with diagonal fold possibly caused by twisting movement.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of terminal rim showing raised rim area and enclosed central, circular depressed area. The central part of the depressed area has a raised circular boss approximately 2 µm wide.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Three way cell. Upper terminal rim is slightly folded over.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Right side illustrates tear in the wall just at the base of the terminal rim. Suggests as do other light microscope images, that there is an incipient weakness at the base of the terminal rim.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of 5 cells. Several of the cells have partially collapsed walls between the terminal rims, suggesting that the latter are the most rigid part of the cell structure. The second cell from the right is a 3 way cell.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of 5 cells above. Detail of terminal rim.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Spindle shaped cell with tear in the outer wall.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Damaged, poor specimen  Length of cell fragment 47µm approx.   More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of outer cell wall tear. Shows the outer wall thickness (approx. 0.5µm) and the outer surface of the inner wall beneath.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detailed close up of outer cell wall tear.   See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Poorly preserved elongate cell. Terminal rim to the left has poorly developed raised circular boss approximately 3 µm wide  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Poorly preserved elongate cell. Terminal rim detail.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of 6 cells. Several of the cells have partially collapsed walls between the terminal rims suggesting that the latter are the most rigid part of the cell structure.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of terminal rim  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Three way cell and ?recently detached elongate cell. Left terminal rim has poorly developed raised circular boss approximately 2 µm wide  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of terminal rim of elongate cell in the above.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Rounded cell with poorly developed terminal rim on the left. Specimen has corroded outer cell wall.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Rounded cell; no distinct terminal rims. Specimen has corroded outer cell wall.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 End on view orientated normal to the terminal plane. Rim appears rectilinear in form, thickening may be incipient or as a result of folding. No pore or aperture visible in the terminal face. Terminal face planar.  Width of terminal face 20µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Long filament with no terminal rims. May not be assignable to Reduviasporonites  Length of cell 190µm approx.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Rounded cell with poorly developed terminal rim on the left. Specimen has corroded outer cell wall.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Flask shaped cell with well developed left terminal rim. Specimen has corroded outer cell wall.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Pair of joined cells.   See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Pair of joined cells. Detail of the join between the cells. Join is marked by a fine suture.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Large rounded cell with well developed terminal rims. Specimen has corroded outer cell wall.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Rounded cell with well developed terminal rims. Specimen has corroded outer cell wall and prominent longitudinal fold.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Rounded cell with well developed terminal rims. Detail of left terminal rim.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Rounded cell with well developed terminal rims.   See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of terminal rim. Fragment of previously attached cell still present.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell with well developed diagonal fold.   See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Well preserved cell with shrunken inner body. Distinct terminal rims.  Length of cell 144µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell with well developed diagonal fold. The right terminal rim is partially detached along the incipient weakness in the cell wall at the base of the terminal rim. The left terminal rim is very well developed.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of left terminal rim. Area enclosed has a hole in the outer cell wall, probably too regular to be a pore or aperture.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with well developed longitudinal fold. This and other specimens indicate a cell wall corrosion form that is similar in appearance to ‘exfoliation’. That the wall appears to ‘flake off’ in this way suggests that it may be lamellate in structure.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen showing a complete cell joined to a partial cell that has broken at the weakness at the base of the terminal rim. Illustrates the fine suture at the join between the adjacent terminal rims.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of three cells with deeply concave compressional shape.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen showing a complete cell joined to a partial cell. Longitudinal tears in the outer cell wall are present.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen above. Wall of inner body may be visible within the longitudinal tear.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell with well developed terminal rim.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of two cells. Left cell has a diagonal fold due to twisting. Illustrates the rigidity of the terminal rims in comparison with the flaccidity of the otherwise unsupported cell wall.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 This specimen illustrates the characteristic ‘Christmas cracker’ morphology of cell chains after vigorous ultrasound treatment. The central cell shown is intact but the two adjacent cells are broken at the base of their respective terminal rims. This illustrates the comparative strength of the bonds between terminal rims.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image MFP12114_3_750_6_A52_3. Detail of inner body. Terminus of internal body detached from the inner surface of the outer wall.  Length of cell 144µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Crack in cell wall. Illustrates the lack of a clear inner body cell wall and, possibly, that in this specimen, the inner body is tightly adpressed to the main cell wall.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of two cells. Left cell has ‘Christmas cracker’ morphology.   See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Large, elongate cell.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of two cells, left cell broken. In overall size (right cell less than 20µm in length) and morphology, these cells are similar to those described by Wilson (1962) and assigned to R. catenulatus.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 This specimen illustrates the characteristic ‘Christmas cracker’ morphology of cell chains after vigorous ultrasound treatment. The central cell shown is intact but the two adjacent cells are broken at the base of their respective terminal rims. This illustrates the comparative strength of the bonds between terminal rims.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 One intact cell with adjacent partial cells. Right side shows detachment of two terminal rims.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of detachment of two terminal rims.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with an oval outline, probably originally ovoid in shape with adjacent partial cell. Right side shows a break in the cell wall.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of the above specimen (right side) showing the inner surface of ?one of the cell walls.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of the above specimen (left side).  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image MFP12114_3_750_6_A52_3. Detail of terminal rim.  Length of cell 144µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 This specimen illustrates the characteristic ‘Christmas cracker’ morphology. On the right the two tightly connected terminal rims can be seen.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell with terminal rim turned toward the viewer.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of the above specimen (left side) with terminal rim turned toward the viewer.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Two ?recently detached cells. Right cell shows possible development of a third terminal rim.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of the above specimen (upper part) with terminal rim.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of terminal rim. Central smooth area may correspond to central ‘boss’ of image ‘DILM_1_7827.9_Stub6_2.jpg’ from Saudi Arabia sample DILM-1 7827.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of two tightly connected cells. Left cell in addition shows connection to the remains of an adjacent cell.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of the above chain (left side).   See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Oblique image of specimen shown in image ‘6403434_2_T1_Stub1_15.tif’ (Austria T1 6403434 2 Stub 1). Shows 3D shape of the compressed cell. The extent and pattern of folding indicates that the cell was originally ovoid in shape.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Oblique image of specimen shown in image ‘6403434_2_T1_Stub1_15.tif’ (Austria T1 6403434 2 Stub 1). Detail.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Outer wall of the cell translucent. Inner body distinct; attachment to the inner surface of the outer wall distinct on the left side.  Length of cell 142µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Oblique image of specimen shown in image ‘6403434_2_T1_Stub1_15.tif’ (Austria T1 6403434 2 Stub 1). Detail.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Oblique image of specimen shown in image ‘6403434_2_T1_Stub1_15.tif’ (Austria T1 6403434 2 Stub 1). Detail illustrates the thickness (approx. 0.75µm), and apparently homogeneous nature of the cell wall. Area within presumably represents the internal cavity of the cell. The inner surface of the wall illustrated appears to be striated.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Oblique image of specimens.  See scale bar  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in MFP12114_3_750_6_B39_3. Detail of inner body attachment to the inner part of the terminal rim. Left side  Length of cell 142µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in MFP12114_3_750_6_B39_3. Detail of inner body attachment to the inner part of the terminal rim. Right side  Length of cell 142µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Well preserved cell with shrunken inner body. Distinct terminal rims. Shows the inner body remains attached to the inner part of the terminal rims.  Length of cell 210µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image MFP12114_3_750_6_B9. Detail of well preserved cell with shrunken inner body; showing ‘striations’ in the outer wall.  Length of cell 210µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of attachment of two cells, showing folds in the connection area.  Length of largest cell 125µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Group of ovoid cells with regular folds indicating approx. position and shape of the inner body. Cells joined where termini of inner body reach inner surface of the outer body.  Approx. mean length of cells 80µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Well preserved cell with shrunken inner body. Inner body in advanced stage of shrinkage, though attachment to inner part of the terminal rim still visible on the right side.  Length of cell 120µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Short, slightly ovoid cell.  Length of cell 105µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Short, slightly ovoid cell.  Length of cell 95µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid specimen, inner body delineated by folds, indicating rectilinear outline.  Length of cell 96µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Bent specimen with discontinuous terminal rim.  Length of cell 100µm approx.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 ?Ovoid specimen, inner body indistinct.  Length of cell 105µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of cells.  Mean length of cells 100µm. Length of chain 330µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with thin outer wall; inner body absent.  Length of cell 115µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Three cells in a chain. Each cell with a very thin delicate outer cell wall and an inner body in various stages of shrinkage. Cell material appears to be present within the inner body.  Mean length of cells 100µm. Length of chain 330µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image MFP12114_3_750_6_J21_2. Detail of cells on the left side.  Mean length of cells 100µm. Length of chain 330µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell with rectilinear folds possibly in the inner body wall. Cf. diagonal furrow of Foster (1979).  Length of cell 120µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Shows some of the range of cell size, shape and wall thickness within a single field of view. To the right are cells similar to those of the Greenland and Moura material. To the left are short ovoid cells.  Elongate cells length 55 and 45µm; ovoid cells have length between 29 and 45µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of cells with masses of cell material. The cells all have intact inner bodies that almost fill the cell cavity.  Cells with maxis lengths of 45, 28 and 32µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 The two prominent dark cells pictured here have inner bodies which almost fill the cell cavity. The differing transparency of the cells illustrated may be due to natural variation in the thickness of one or both of the cell walls.  Cells with length between 48 and 28 µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 The middle cell displays a slightly shrunken inner body where the inner wall is no longer adpressed to the inner surface of the outer cell wall but has retreated a few microns. Note that the inner cell wall is still adpressed to the outer cell wall at the termini. The lack of a strong transparency difference between parts of the cell showing the inner and outer walls indicates that the inner body has a thin wall.  Two main cells pictured have max. axis lengths of 40 and 43µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Two adjacent cells; one with an inner body, one without.  Two main cells pictured have lengths of 45 and 43µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 The cell displays a slightly shrunken inner body where the inner wall is no longer adpressed to the inner surface of the outer cell wall but has retreated a few microns. Note that the inner cell wall is still adpressed to the outer cell wall at the termini.   Main cell has length 42µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell with inner body in advanced state of shrinkage  Main cell length 47µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Main cell pictured shows how shrinkage of the inner body occurs mainly in the middle parts of the cell. The inner body rarely detaches from the inner surfaces of the terminal rims unless shrinkage is very advanced.  Main cell length 43µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Shows folds in the inner bodies of two adjacent elongate cells   Length of largest cell pictured is 65µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Terminal rim partially detached suggesting incipient weakness in the outer wall just adjacent to the rim.  Length of cell 125µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell with rectilinear folds possibly in the inner body wall. Cf. diagonal furrow of Foster (1979).  Length of cell 120µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell  Length of cell 95µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell  Length of cell 95µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with circular outline; terminal rims distinct, inner body shrunken and cell material present. Cf. B. helbyi f. gregata Foster 1979  Length of cell 85µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell with shrunken inner body detached at both ends from the cell termini.  Length of cell 135µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell lacking inner body.   Length of cell 194µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell folded showing terminal rims.  Approx. length of cell 100µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Flask shaped cell.  Length of cell 160µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image 6403380_NLD36_D35. Flask shaped cell. Detail shows that the inner body is missing.  Length of cell 160µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Showing incipient weakness at the base of the terminal rim.   Length of cell 115µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Pair of joined cells, indicating nature of cell contact and advanced state of shrinkage of the inner body in both cells.  Length of pictured cells 110 and 100µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell with rectilinear folds possibly in the inner body.  Length of cell 130µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Showing a detached terminal rim. Plane of terminal face parallel to plane of slide.  Diameter of the terminal rim 27 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Showing the dispersion of the cell material within the cell cavity.  Length of cell 150µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Showing a ‘three way cell’; each terminus with a terminal rim.  Approx. length of cell 100µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of three cells, each showing shrunken inner body with varying levels of attachment to the termini of the outer wall.  Length of pictured cells 115, 100 and 90 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image 6403380_NLD36_P5_1. Chain of three cells. Right side of chain. Illustrates attachment of the inner body to the termini of the outer wall. A helical twist may be present in the inner body of the right cell. Possibly such a twist is responsible for common diagonal folds.  Length of pictured cells 115, 100 and 90 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image 6403380_NLD36_P5_1. Chain of three cells. Left side of chain. Illustrates tenuous attachment of the inner body to the termini of the outer wall.  Length of pictured cells 115, 100 and 90 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with circular outline and distinct terminal rims.  Length of cell 85µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell with striations on the outer wall. Striations parallel to the long axis of the cell.  Length of cell 100µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Spindle-shaped cell with dark cell material.  Length of cell 55µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Small cell with sub-rectangular outline.  Length of cell 40µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Ovoid cell with partially shrunken inner body.  Length of cell 120µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell. Outer cell surface is very finely, indistinctly granulate. Grana less than 0.5µm high and wide; similar distance apart. Inner cell material distinct; amorphous to granular in appearance.  Length of cell 82µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate cell bent in the centre. Right hand part of the cell shows ‘striations’ in the outer cell wall orientated parallel to the long axis of the cell. These striations may be the result of shrinkage of the outer cell wall.  Length of cell100µm approx.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Dark coloured (thick walled) specimen; displays very distinct inner and outer cell walls. Outer cell wall 1-1.5µm thick; outer surface very finely granulate (grana only just resolvable under oil x100). Faint shrinkage folds in the outer cell wall are present close to the termini. In these areas the terminal rims are ‘pinched’ i.e. much narrower than usual perhaps called by shrinkage. Inner cell wall 1 µm thick or less; appears smooth. Detached from the inner surface of the outer cell wall only close to the termini. Width of cavity between the two cell walls max. 3µm. Termini of the inner body still attached to the inner surface of the terminal rims. Small cavity at the terminus of the inner body visible on the right side of the cell. Cell material amorphous.  Length of cell 71µm approx.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Very small ovoid cell. Cell material amorphous and granular. Very distinct separation between inner body and cell wall. Outer cell wall 1-1.5µm thick; outer surface very finely granulate (grana only just resolvable under oil (x100)). Cell material confined by folds in the inner body.  Length of cell 46µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Two detached cells. Right side of largest cell has distinct detachment of inner body from the cell wall at the terminus, forming a small cavity.  Length of cells 71 and 54 µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image 5031_Conisboro_F24_4_2. Cell with very constricted terminal rim. This specimen suggests that there are three wall layers in the cell which are only evident at the termini, and which, over the rest of the cell, are tightly adpressed. At the terminal rim a slight separation is evident.  Length of cell 67µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with very constricted terminal rim.  Length of cell 67µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell relatively light in colour due to the comprehensive collapse of the inner body. The very dark amorphous to granulate cell material is seen to be enveloped in the very thin, delicate inner body which is twisted and attached to the cell wall at the right terminal rim.  Length of cell 55µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell relatively light in colour due to the comprehensive collapse of the inner body. The very dark amorphous to granulate cell material is seen to be enveloped in the very thin, delicate inner body which is twisted and attached to the cell wall at both ends. At the right is a strand of material which may represent the shrunken inner body of a previously adjacent cell.  Length of cell 50µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cells with circular outline.  Length of cells 53 and 50µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Rectangular, elongate cell with indistinct inner body.  Length of cell 130µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Two joined ovoid cells. Cf. B. helbyi f. gregata  Mean length of cells 45µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with irregular outline and a thin outer cell wall (0.5µm or less); contains a distinct, highly folded inner body. The inner body is in a partly shrunken state but is clearly attached to the inner surface of the terminal rims at both ends of the cell.  Length of cell 90µm approx.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Two cells, both lacking inner bodies, connected by distinct terminal rims. Significantly the outer ends of both the cells have very poorly developed terminal rims.  Length of cells 105 and 95µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Very large irregularly shaped cell with distinct inner body.  Length of cell 147µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Approximately half of a large, well developed cell with a distinct terminal rim. A very shrunken and twisted inner body envelopes a mass of dense granulate cell material. The enveloping inner body forms a spindle shape. Terminus of inner body still attached to the inner surface of the terminal rim.  Length of fragment 82µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of the specimen shown in image 203.3_F58_1. Twisted inner body envelopes a mass of dense granulate cell material.  Length of fragment 82µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Flask shaped cell containing granular cell material.   Length of cell 128µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Shrunken and twisted inner body envelopes a mass of dense granulate cell material. Mass and enveloping inner body forms a spindle shape. Termini of inner body still attached to the inner surfaces of the terminal rims.  Length of cell 75µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate specimen with sub-rectangular outline. Inner body appears adpressed to the inner surface of the cell.  Length of cell 73µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Elongate specimen with sub-rectangular outline. Inner body appears adpressed to the inner surface of the cell.  Length of cell 65µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Slightly ovoid cell with distinct diagonal fold. Cf. diagonal furrow of Foster (1979).  Length of cell 100µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of three cells which are elongate to ovoid in outline.  Mean length of cells 30µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Slightly ovoid form  Length of cell 68µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of short ovoid cells  Mean length of cells 24µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell with constricted terminal rims  Length of cell 83µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Cell wall irregularly pitted.  Length of cell 87µm.  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of three short ovoid cells. Cell to the left has three terminal rims.  Mean length of cells 35µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Detail of specimen shown in image DILM_1_7827.9_K35_1. Chain of three short ovoid cells. Detail showing inner and outer cell walls. Outer cell wall approx. 1µm thick; surface smooth. Inner wall between 1 and 0.75µm thick; surface also smooth. Two walls closely adpressed.   Mean length of cells 35µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Short spindle shaped cell  Length of cell 44µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Chain of small ovoid cells similar in morphology to the Flowerpot Formation specimens  Mean length of cells 25µm  More info 
Reduviasporonites chalastus (Foster) Elsik 1999 Nearly rectangular outline, short cell  Length of cell 53µm  More info 

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