Publications about gypsum dissolution and soluble rock subsidence hazards

Publications detailing gypsum dissolution and other soluble rock geohazards are lodged with the British Geological Survey library in Keyworth. Copies of the main articles relevant to Ripon are also deposited with Ripon local library. Copies of the maps and memoirs for the area can be purchased through the BGS sales office at the British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG. Tel. 0115 936 3241

BGS Memoirs

POWELL, J H, COOPER, A H and BENFIELD, A C. 1992. Geology of the country around Thirsk. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 52 (England and Wales).

COOPER, A H and BURGESS, I C. 1993 Geology of the country around Harrogate. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 62 (England and Wales).

BGS Maps

Six‑inch or 1:10,000 scale maps are available as hand-drawn black and white maps for the area underlain by gypsum. Recent maps are available for the area extending from Wetherby through Ripon to Bedale and beyond; most of this area does not suffer from catastrophic subsidence. The map covering most of Ripon is S37SW, the west of Ripon is on map SE27SE and the south of Ripon is on map SE36NW. These maps were updated in 1996 and differ in detail from the colour-printed maps listed below. The maps show the distribution of subsidence hollows in the Ripon area.

Colour-printed 1:50,000 scale maps are available for the district. Two editions are printed, the solid edition shows the bedrock and the drift edition shows the superficial deposits (glacial deposits, alluvium etc) with bedrock where that is exposed at the surface. The southern half of Ripon is included in the Harrogate (62) maps and the northern part of Ripon in the Thirsk (52) maps. Both areas are described in the respective memoirs listed above.

BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 1987. Harrogate Sheet 62. Solid. 1:50 000 (Southampton: Ordnance Survey for the British Geological Survey).

BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 1987. Harrogate Sheet 62. Drift. 1:50 000 (Southampton: Ordnance Survey for the British Geological Survey).

BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 1992. Thirsk Sheet 52. Solid. 1:50 000 (Southampton: Ordnance Survey for the British Geological Survey).

BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 1992. Thirsk Sheet 52. Drift. 1:50 000 (Southampton: Ordnance Survey for the British Geological Survey).

BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 2003. Leeds. England and Wales Sheet 70. Solid and Drift Geology. 1:50 000 (Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey).

Papers

If any difficulty is experienced obtaining copies of the papers listed below, please contact Dr A.H.Cooper

JAMES, A N, COOPER, A H and HOLLIDAY, D W. 1981. Solution of the gypsum cliff (Permian Middle Marl) by the River Ure at Ripon Parks, North Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, Vol. 43, 433‑450.

COOPER, A H. 1986. Foundered strata and subsidence resulting from the dissolution of Permian gypsum in the Ripon and Bedale areas, North Yorkshire. 127‑139 in HARWOOD, G M and SMITH, D B (Editors). The English Zechstein and related topics. Geological Society of London, Special Publication. No. 22.

COOPER, A H. 1988. Subsidence resulting from the dissolution of Permian gypsum in the Ripon area; its relevance to mining and water abstraction. 387‑390 in BELL, F G, CULSHAW, M G, CRIPPS, J C and LOVELL, M A (Editors) Engineering Geology of Underground Movements. Geological Society of London, Engineering Geology Special Publication No.5.

COOPER, A H. 1989. Airborne multispectral scanning of subsidence caused by Permian gypsum dissolution at Ripon, North Yorkshire. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology (London), Vol. 22, 219‑229.

RYDER, P F, & COOPER, A H. 1993. A cave system in Permian gypsum at Houtsay Quarry, Newbiggin, Cumbria, England. Cave Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, 23-28.

PATTERSON, D., DAVEY, J.C., COOPER, A.H. & FERRIS, J.K.1995. The application of microgravity geophysics in a phased investigation of dissolution subsidence at Ripon, Yorkshire. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology (London), Vol. 28, 83-94.

COOPER, A.H. 1995. Subsidence hazards due to the dissolution of Permian gypsum in England: investigation and remediation. 23-29 in Beck, F.B. (ed.) Karst Geohazards: engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane. Proceedings of the fifth multidiciplinary conference on sinkholes and the engineering and enviromnental impacts of karst Gatlinburg/Tennessee/2-5 April 1995. 581pp. A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam.

COOPER, A.H. 1996. Gypsum dissolution geohazards. Geoscientist. Vol 6, No 1, 18-19.

COOPER, A.H. 1996. Gypsum: geology, quarrying, mining and geological hazards in the Chellaston area of South Derbyshire. British Geological Survey Technical Report WA/96/30

COOPER, A.H. and CALOW, R. 1997. Gypsum geohazards: their impact on development - Project Summary Report, Research Project No R6490. British Geological Survey Technical Report WC/97/17.

PAUKŠTYS, B., COOPER, A.H. and ARUSTIENE, J. 1997. Planning for gypsum geohazards in Lithuania and England. 127-135 in Beck, F.B. and Stephenson, J.B (Editors) The Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology of Karst Terranes. Proceedings of the Sixth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst Springfield/Missouri/6-9 April 1997. A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam.

LU YAORU AND COOPER, A.H. 1997. Gypsum karst geohazards in China. 117-126 in Beck, F.B. and Stephenson, J.B (Editors) The Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology of Karst Terranes. Proceedings of the Sixth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst Springfield/Missouri/6-9 April 1997. A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam.

COOPER, A.H. 1997. Gypsum karst of Great Britain. 195-202 in KLIMCHOUK, A., LOWE, D., COOPER, A. and SAURO, U. (Editors). 1997. Gypsum karst of the world. International Journal of Speleology. Vol. 25 (3-4) for 1996.
http://ijs.speleo.it/pdf/6.58.25_Cooper.pdf

LU YAORU and COOPER, A.H. 1997. Gypsum karst in China. 297-307 in KLIMCHOUK, A., LOWE, D., COOPER, A. and SAURO, U. (Editors). 1997. Gypsum karst of the world. International Journal of Speleology. Vol. 25 (3-4) for 1996.
http://ijs.speleo.it/pdf/6.68.25_Yaoru.Cooper.pdf

KLIMCHOUK, A., FORTI, P. and COOPER, A.H. 1997. Gypsum karst of the world: a brief overview. 159-181 in KLIMCHOUK, A., LOWE, D., COOPER, A. and SAURO, U. (Editors). 1997. Gypsum karst of the world. International Journal of Speleology. Vol. 25 (3-4) for 1996.http://ijs.speleo.it/pdf/6.56.25_Klimchouk.Forti.Cooper.pdf

KLIMCHOUK, A., LOWE, D., COOPER, A. and SAURO, U. (Editors). 1997. Gypsum karst of the world. International Journal of Speleology. Vol. 25 (3-4) for 1996, 307pp.
Available to download from as sections from http://www.ijs.speleo.it/issue.php?id_volume=6

COOPER, A.H. 1997. Subsidence at Ripon: collapse into gypsum caves. Geology Today. May-June 1997, 88.

COOPER, A.H. and CALOW, R. Avoiding gypsum geohazards: guidance for planning and construction. British Geological Survey Technical Report WC/98/5. on the web at:
http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/international/dfid-kar/WC98005_col.pdf

COOPER, A.H. 1998. Gypsum geohazards: European studies of gypsum subsidence. Earthwise. Issue. 11, 30.

COOPER, A.H. 1998. Avoiding gypsum geohazards: guidance for planning and construction. Earthworks, Issue 6, 4.

COOPER, A.H. 1998. Subsidence hazards caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in England: geology, investigation and remediation. In MAUND, J.G. & EDDLESTON, M (eds.) Geohazards in Engineering Geology. Geological Society, London, Engineering Special Publications, Vol. 15, 265-275.

PAUKŠTYS, B., COOPER, A.H. and ARUSTIENE, J. 1999. Planning for gypsum geohazards in Lithuania and England. Engineering Geology, Vol. 52, 93-103.

WALTHAM, T. and COOPER, A. 1998. Features of gypsum caves and karst at Pinega (Russia) and Ripon (England). Cave and Karst Science, Vol.25, 131-140.

COOPER, A.H. and Saunders, J.M. 1999. Road and bridge construction across gypsum karst in England. In Beck, B.F., Pettit,A.J. and Herring.J.G. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology of Sinkholes and Karst- 1999. Proceedings of the Seventh Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst. Harrisburg/Hershey, Pennsylvania, April 10-14, 1999. A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam, 407-411.

LAMONT-BLACK, J., YOUNGER, P.L., FORTH, R.A., COOPER, A.H. and BONNIFACE, J.P. 1999. Hydrogeological monitoring strategies for investigation subsidence problems potentially attributable to gypsum karstification. In. BECK, B.F., Pettit,A.J. and Herring.J.G. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology of Sinkholes and Karst- 1999. Proceedings of the Seventh Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst. Harrisburg/Hershey, Pennsylvania, April 10-14, 1999. A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam, 141-148.

COOPER, A.H. 1999. Salt subsidence: geohazard legacy and future problem? Earthwise. Issue 14, p14. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/downloads/browse.cfm?sec=3&cat=64

COOPER, A.H. and WALTHAM, A.C. 1999. Subsidence caused by gypsum dissolution at Ripon, North Yorkshire: photographic feature. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology. Vol. 32, 305-310.

COOPER, A.H. 2000. Discussion of “Early Holocene environments of the River Ure near Ripon, North Yorkshire, UK” by Howard et.al., Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society. Vol. 53. 31-42.

Gutierrez, F., Garcia-Hermoso, F. & Cooper, A.H. 2000. Assessment, mitigation and prevention of evaporite dissolution subsidence damage in the historical city of Calatayud, Spain. 237-248. In CARBOGNIN, L., GAMBOLATI, G. and JOHNSON, I.A. Land Subsidence, Vol. 1. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Land Subsidence, Ravenna, Italy, 24-29 September 2000.

COOPER, A.H. 2001. Natural and induced halite karst geohazards in Great Britain. In BECK, B.F. and Herring.J.G. (eds.) Geotechnical and environmental applications of karst geology and hydrogeology. Proceedings of the eighth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, April 1-4th Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Balkema Publishers. 119-124.

COOPER, A.H., Farrant, A.R., Adlam, K.A.M. and Walsby, J.C. 2001. The development of a national geographic information system (GIS) for British karst geohazards and risk assessment. In BECK, B.F. and Herring.J.G. (eds.) Geotechnical and environmental applications of karst geology and hydrogeology. Proceedings of the eighth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, April 1-4th Louisville, Kentucky, USA. Balkema Publishers. 125-130.

Gutierrez, F., Cooper, A.H. 2002. Evaporite dissolution subsidence in the historical city of Calatayud, Spain: damage appraisal, mitigation and prevention. Natural Hazards, Vol. 25, 259-288.

COOPER, A and FARRANT, A. 2002. Planning for problems with soluble rocks. 18-19 in Geology and Planning, Earthwise Issue 18. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/downloads/start.cfm?id=238

LAMONT-BLACK, J., YOUNGER, P.L., FORTH, R.A., COOPER, A.H. and BONNIFACE, J.P. 2002. A decision logic framework for investigating subsidence problems potentially attributable to gypsum karstification. Engineering Geology, Vol. 65, 205-215.

COOPER, A.H. and Saunders, J.M. 2002. Road and bridge construction across gypsum karst in England. . Engineering Geology, Vol. 65, 217-223.

COOPER, A.H. 2002. Halite karst geohazards (natural and man-made) in the United Kingdom. Environmental Geology, Vol. 42, 505-512.

COOPER, A.H. 2002. Environmental problems caused by gypsum karst and salt karst in Great Britain. Carbonates and Evaporites, Vol. 17, 116-120

COOPER, A.H. 2005. Case Study 1, Remediation of a sinkhole over gypsum in Ripon, U.K. 272-276 in. WALTHAM, T., BELL, F. and CULSHAW, M. Sinkholes and Subsidence – Karst and Cavernous Rocks in Engineering and Construction. Springer-Praxis, Berlin.

LAMONT-BLACK, J., BAKER, A. YOUNGER, P.L. and COOPER, A.H. 2005. Utilising seasonal variations in hydrogeochemistry and excitation-emission fluorescence to develop a conceptual groundwater flow model with implications for subsidence hazards : an example from Co. Durham, UK: In: Environmental Geology .Vol. 48 pt/no 3 p. 320-335

JONES, C.J.F.P. and COOPER, A.H. 2005. Road construction over voids caused by active gypsum dissolution, with an example from Ripon, North Yorkshire, England. Environmental Geology. Vol. 48, pt.3 384-394.

GIBSON, A D., FORSTER, A., CULSHAW, M. G., COOPER, A. H., FARRANT, A., JACKSON, N.and WILLET, D. 2005. Rapid Geohazard Assessment System for the UK Natural Gas Pipeline Network. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Geology and Linear Developments – Geoline 2005. Lyon 23rd –25th May 2005. Digital Proceedings ISBN 2-7159-2982-x.

COOPER, A H., 2006. Gypsum dissolution geohazards at Ripon, North Yorkshire, UK. IAEG2006. Field Trip Guide Ripon. Proceedings of the 10th IAEG International Congress, Engineering geology for tomorrow’s cities. Geological Society of London 2006 published on CD.
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/1479/

COOPER, A H. 2008. The GIS approach to evaporite karst geohazards in Great Britain. Environmental Geology. Vol 53, 981-992 (also digital publication 2007 DOI 10.1007/s00254-007-0724-8)

Gutierrez, F, Cooper, A H and Johnson, K S. 2008. Identification, prediction and mitigation of sinkhole hazards in evaporite karst areas. Environmental Geology. Vol 53, 1007-1022. (also digital publication 2007 DOI 10.1007/s00254-007-0728-4)

Gutierrez, F, Johnson, K S and Cooper, A H. 2008. Evaporite karst processes, landforms, and environmental problems. Environmental Geology . Vol 53, 935-936. (also digital publication 2007 DOI 10.1007/s00254-007-0715-9)

COOPER, A.H. 2008. The classification, recording, databasing and use of information about building damage caused by subsidence and landslides. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology Vol. 41. 409-424.
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/4780/

FARRANT, A.R. and COOPER, A.H. 2008. Karst geohazards in the UK: the use of digital data for hazard management. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology Vol. 41. 339-356
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/4227/