Subsidence overseas

Natural breakdown cone of debris funnelling into the Mylinki Gypsum cave in the western Ukraine.

Gypsum-related subsidence is not unique to Ripon in England. It affects many parts of Europe including Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Cyprus, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and Russia. In Spain, areas surrounding the city of Zaragoza are affected; the town of Calatayud has suffered severe subsidence and the new village of Puilatos had to be abandoned and demolished. In France, around Paris, and around Stuttgart and towns peripheral to the Hartz Mountains in Germany, gypsum dissolution caves have caused problems for road and building construction. The town of Pasvalys and Biržai in northern Lithuania also suffer from subsidence, but here it is aggravated by ground water abstraction.

Gypsum geohazards are a world-wide problem that affects the USA, Canada, China and many more countries. In China large subsidence features, caused by gypsum dissolution, have occurred in the Taiyuan and Yangquan regions of Shanxi Coalfield and in the adjacent Hebei Coalfield. Wherever there is groundwater movement and gypsum together, dissolution and subsidence can occur. Gypsum karst geohazards have been responsible for leakage or failure in more than 24 dams world-wide.