The River Severn flows through the Ironbridge Gorge (location map and Figure 1) which is located to the south of Telford in Shropshire and is a World Heritage Site. It is named after the famous Iron Bridge designed by Thomas Farnolls Pritchard and built by Abraham Darby III, the first arch bridge in the world to be made from cast iron (Figure 2).
The Gorge is thought to have originated some 10 000 years ago and is deeply incised in rocks of Upper Carboniferous and Silurian age, which are prone to landsliding, and have suffered a number of failures through its history. The valley sides rise steeply from 40 m at river level to over 140 m on the plateau above (Figure 3).
Figure 1 Ironbridge Gorge photograph taken in 1974 (BGS photo number P211697).
Figure 2 The Iron Bridge, Shropshire. Photograph taken in 2003 (P626433).
Figure 3 Ironbridge Gorge map (Top); Hillshade relief map (bottom) taken from NEXTMap Britain elevation data from Intermap Technologies.
There are over 20 landslides documented in the National Landslide Database in the area. Examples of two of the larger landslides in the Gorge are described here:
In 1952, a landslide (National Landslide Database ID 4335/1) occurred at the village of Jackfield, Shropshire, on the River Severn just over 2 km downstream of the Iron Bridge, destroying several houses (Figure 4) and causing major dislocations in a railway and road (Skempton, 1964). This landslide event was included in the Fourth Rankine Lecture (Skempton, 1964). The following quotation is taken from this paper:
"It is possible that previous landslides may have taken place along at least a part of the present slip surface, but the slope must have been more or less stable for a long time before 1950, when warnings of instability were observed in the form of a broken water main serving cottages near the river bank. Towards the end of 1951 further movement was noted, and by February 1952 the road was becoming dangerous. During the next month or two the landslide developed alarmingly. Six houses were completely broken up, gas mains had to be relaid above ground, the railway could be maintained only by daily adjustments to the track and a minor road along the river had to be closed to traffic. By this time the maximum downhill displacement totalled 60 ft . The strata, consisting of very stiff clays and mudstone, alternating with marl-breccia and occasional coal seams, dip gently in a south-easterly direction with the strike running roughly parallel to the section of the landslide. The slide, however, was confined wholly within the zone of weathered, fissured clay extending to a depth of 20 ft to 25 ft below the surface. The slip surface ran parallel to the slope (which is inclined at 10º), at an average depth of 18 ft. The length of the sliding mass, measured up the slope, amounted to about 550 ft and in the winter 1952-53 ground-water level reached the surface at a number of points, although on average it was located at a depth of 2 ft".
In 1984, further ground movement occurred to the west of the 1952 area of landslide. Salthouse Road was carried into the river and was replaced by a temporary wooden roadway (Figure 5) constructed along the line of the former railway (High-Point Rendel, 2005a). Other movement events for the Jackfield landslide are documented in 1925 and 1931 (Giles, 2008).
Figure 5 Flexible wooden slatted roadway runs across the Jackfield Landslide along the line of a former railway line.
This landslide (National Landslide ID 4338/1) is actively moving as a series of rotational and translational slides. Crags of sandstone have moved down from their outcrop near the top of the hill, bringing with them the overlying thick till. Geological faults, ground water, surface water, the nature of the geology, construction and mining are all associated with the instability of this slope.
The backscarp of this landslide was photographed in 1924 (Figure 6):
Figure 6 The backscarp of Lloyd's Coppice landslide from 1924 (click to view larger).
This landslide is within the Halesowen Formation which is particularly susceptible to movement in this area as it includes more silty strata and less sandstone than elsewhere. Buildings and roads have been affected by the landslide (e.g. Figure 7).
Figure 7 Movement of a house within the Lloyd's Coppice landslide. The greenhouse is vertical.
Considerable investigative work has recently been undertaken by Telford and Wrekin Council on this landslide to develop appropriate management plans to anticipate and mitigate the effect on the land usage.
Bridge, D.M., and Hough, E., 2002, Geology of the Wolverhampton and Telford district - a brief explanation of the geological map, Sheet Explanation of the British Geological Survey, NERC, 1:50 000 Sheet 153 (England and Wales).
Carson, A.M., and Fisher, J., 1991, Management of landslides within Shropshire, in Chandler, R.J., ed., Institution of Civil Engineers: Slope Stability Engineering, Thomas Telford, p. 95-99.
Cruden, D.M., and Varnes, D., 1996, Landslide types and processes, Special Report 247: Landslides: Investigation and Mitigation: Washington D.C., Transportation Research Board.
Culshaw, M., 1972, A preliminary report on the stability of Jockey Bank, Ironbridge, Institute of Geological Sciences, WN/EG/72/5.
Culshaw, M., 1973, A stability assessment of the north slope of the Ironbridge Gorge, Telford, Shropshire, Institute of Geological Sciences, WN/EG/73/1.
Culshaw, M., 1973, A stability assessment of the slopes around Lee Dingle, Telford, Shropshire, Institute of Geological Sciences Technical Report, WN/EG/73/5
Denness, B., 1977, The Ironbridge landslide - a case history of instabilities in Carboniferous sediments, Proceedings of the Conference on Rock Engineering (CORE-UK): University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, British Geotechnical Society, London, p. 407-422.
Gostelow, T.P., Hamblin, R.J.O., Harris, D.I., and Hight, D.W., 1991, The influence of late and post glacial slope development on the engineering geology of Wenlock Shale near Ironbridge, Salop: Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publications, v. 7, (1), p. 349-359.
Hamblin, R.J.O., 1986, The Pleistocene sequence of the Telford district: Geotechnique, v. 97, 365-377.
Hamblin, R.J.O., and Coppack, B.C., 1995, Geology of the Telford and the Coalbrookdale Coalfield, Memoir of the British Geological Survey, NERC, Parts of 1:50 000 geological sheets 152 and 153 (England and Wales): 1:25 000 sheet SJ 60 with parts of 61, 70, 71.
Harmer, F.W., 1907, On the Origin of Certain Canon-like Valleys associated with Lake-like Areas of Depression: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v. 63, (1-4), p. 470-514.
Henkel, D.J., and Skempton, A.W., 1954, A landslide at Jackfield, Shropshire, in a heavily over-consolidated clay: Geotechnique, v. 5, (2), p. 131-137.
Maw, G., 1864, Notes on the Drift-deposits of the Valley of the Severn, in the Neighbourhood of Coalbrook Dale and Bridgnorth: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v. 20, (1-2), p. 130-144.
Shropshire Star, 2008a, Iron Bridge twisting under landslides, 18th September 2008.
Shropshire Star, 2008b, More floods misery on way, 29th June 2007.
Skempton, A.W., 1964, Fourth Rankine Lecture: Long term stability of clay slopes: Geotechnique, v. 14, (2), p. 77-101.
Varnes, D., 1978, Slope movement types and processes, Special report 176: Landslides: Analysis and Control: Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board.
Wills, L.J., 1924, The Development of the Severn Valley in the Neighbourhood of Iron-Bridge and Bridgnorth: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v. 80, (1-4), p. 274-308.