Planning4Minerals header
  Influence of EU
 Role of central government
 Role of regional bodies
 Enviro protection/heritage
 Role of elected members
 Local communities
 Planning process
 Future aggregate sites
 Commercial interests
 Planning permission
 Enforcing planning rights
 Natural and built heritage
 Noise and vibration
 Transport and traffic
 Air quality
 Water resources
 Mineral waste
  What are aggregates?
 Resources vs Reserves
 Location of aggregates
 Quarry design/restoration
 Aggregate process
 Aggregate testing
  Aggregates use
 Supply and demand
 Value to economy
 Regional supply issues
 Local economy
 Transportation issues
 Site map
 Notes for trainers
Glossary of terms

AARHUS CONVENTION: The Aarhus Convention grants the public rights and imposes on parties and public authorities obligations regarding access to information and public participation and access to justice. It was adopted on 25th June 1998 in the Danish city of Aarhus.

ABSTRACTION: Removal of water from its natural location, such as removal of groundwater from below the water table, or pumping of water from a river.

ACOUSTIC CLADDING: Material added to a building or machine to limit the transmission of noise and reduce the environmental impact of operation.

ACOUSTIC FENCING: Any material used to limit the noise leaving a site. Examples include trees, shrubs and mounds or banks of earth (often formed from the top-soil or subsoil which has been stripped off the excavation area).

AGGREGATE LEVY: The Aggregate Levy was introduced in April 2002 at a rate of £1.60/tonne of primary aggregate produced. It is intended to address the environmental costs associated with quarrying operations and encourage the use to recycled and secondary aggregates.

AGGREGATE MINERAL SURVEY: The Aggregate Mineral Survey is a voluntary survey of aggregate production and reserves undertaken every four years. The results of the survey are vital for monitoring and developing planning policy for the supply of aggregates in both England and Wales. The BGS is currently collating the results of AM2005 on behalf of the DCLG (Department for Communities and Local Government) and the Welsh Assembley Government.
AM2001_low_res.pdf available to download through

AGRICULTURAL AFTERUSE: Restoration to a quality that allows the land to be returned to use as farming. This usually involves partially or fully filling the excavation void with inert waste, covering with layers of soil and seeding with grass.


ANFO: Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (most often diesel fuel). The basic chemistry of ANFO detonation is the reaction of ammonium nitrate (NH 4NO3) with a long chain hydrocarbon (fuel oil) to form nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water and produce energy.

APPEAL: The process whereby a planning applicant can challenge an adverse decision, including a refusal of permission. Appeals can also be made against the failure of the planning authority to issue a decision, against conditions attached to a permission, and against the issue of an enforcement notice.

APPORTIONMENT: The splitting of regional supply guidelines for minerals demand between planning authorities or subregions.

AREA OF OUTSTANDING NATURAL BEAUTY: Areas of special landscape character and value, of national importance. Such areas are considered to represent landscapes of high sensitivity. Their care has been entrusted to the local authorities, organisations, community groups and the individuals who live and work within them or who value them.

ASH: Solid residue remaining after all volatiles, carbon and other combustibles have been consumed by fire. Usually takes the form of a fine, inert powder.

BACKFILL: Inert waste used to fill an excavation void once the mineral has been extracted.

BASALT: Fine grained, dark, basic igneous rock.

BELT TURNING DEVICES: Rollers that force the belt into a concave shape to allow an increase in belt capacity and reduce the amount of material that is lost over the side.

BIODIVERSITY: The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Article 2).

BIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN (BAP) : In the simplest terms a biodiversity action plan is a plan to conserve or enhance biodiversity. More specifically, a BAP can be defined as a set of future actions that will lead to the conservation or enhancement of biodiversity.

BITUMEN: Bitumen (also known as tar) is the heaviest fraction of crude oil, it has the highest boiling point, melts at ~60 oC, and is therefore solid at room temperature. Bitumen is used as a binding agent in asphalt production.

BRITISH STANDARDS: The display of a British Standard number shows that the manufacturer claims to have made the product in accordance with the British Standard. A standard is a published document that contains a technical specification or other precise criteria designed to be used consistently as a rule or definition. Standards are designed for voluntary use and do not impose any regulations. However, laws and regulations may refer to certain standards and make compliance with them compulsory. Sometimes BS will be accompanied by the letters EN and/or ISO. These mean that the standard was developed as a European (EN) or International (ISO) standard and then adopted by the UK as a British Standard.

BUFFER ZONES: An area of land separating certain types of development from adjoining sensitive land uses. Often used in relation to minerals and/or waste development. For instance, a mineral local plan may stipulate that a buffer zone of 200 m be put around all existing urban development to protect residents from the environmental effects of quarrying.

CALL-IN: The Department for Communities and Local Government can call in certain planning applications that local authorities propose to approve. For example, where it may have wider effects beyond the immediate locality, significant regional or national controversy, or potential conflict with national policy. These will then be subject to a public inquiry presided over by a planning inspector who will make recommendation to the Department for Communities and Local Government who will decide the application instead of the local planning authority.

CASE LAW: Law based on judicial decision and precedent rather than on statutes, also known as common law.

CEMENTATION: The diagenetic process by which grains are bound together by minerals precipitated from surrounding groundwater.

CHALK: Chalk is a soft, white, porous form of limestone. Chalk is formed in shallow waters by the gradual accumulation of the calcite mineral remains of micro-organisms, over millions of years.

CHINA CLAY: China Clay is a white clay consisting predominantly of the mineral Kaolinite (Al 2Si 2O 5(OH) 4). It is created by the alteration of granite and is worked from large deposits near St Austell in Cornwall. Kaolin is used in the production of paper and white ceramics.

CIRCULAR 60/96: Welsh Office Circular 60/96, 'Planning and the Historic Environment: Archaeology':

CIRCULAR 61/96: Welsh Office Circular 61/96, 'Planning and the Historic Environment: Historic Buildings and Conservation Areas':

CIRCULAR NO. 8/93: DOE Circular 8/93 Award of Costs Incurred in Planning and Other (Including Compulsory Purchase Order) Proceedings:

CO2 (carbon dioxide): is formed during the combustion of carbon fuels (such as diesel). It is a greenhouse gas and therefore contributes to global warming.

COAL: Easily combustible sedimentary rock created by the compaction and induration of plant remains.

COMPACTION: The diagenetic process by which the volume of sediment is reduced due to pressure from overlying layers of sediment.

COMPENSATION PAYMENTS: Payment to compensate the land owner for the temporary loss of his land to mineral working.


CONSERVATION AREAS: A local designation of areas of land and buildings of special architectural or historic interest, the character or appearance of which local authorities consider should be preserved or enhanced.

CONTAMINANT: Any substance present at a concentration above that found naturally. Contaminants do not necessarily cause harm if the degree of contamination is not significant.


DEVELOPMENT: Development is defined under the 1990 Town and Country Planning Act as the carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operation in, on, over or under land, or the making of any material change in the use of any building or other land. Most forms of development require planning permission.


DEVELOPMENT PLAN: A document setting out the local planning authority's policies and proposals for the development and use of land and buildings in the authority's area. It includes unitary, structure, and local plans prepared under transitional arrangements, and new regional spatial strategies and development plan Documents prepared under the Planning & Compulsory Purchase Act of 2004.

DEWATERING: Removing water from a system. For instance removing water from a stream or aquifer for use in a quarry.

DIORITE: Dark grey intrusive igneous rock composed of plagioclase feldspar, hornblende and/or pyroxene.

DISCHARGE: To release water, from a quarry, back into the natural system.

DOLERITE: Medium grained basic igneous rock found as small to medium sized intrusions. Commonly exploited as aggregate.

DOUBLE HANDLING: Moving a material twice; for example moving a waste tip to access underlying reserve.

DOWNSTREAM USE: Uses that materials are put to after the point of sale from producer to customer. For example, an oil company produces crude oil and sells it to a petrochemical company. Fractionation into petrol, diesel, bitumen etc, is a downstream use, as is use in cars, lorries and asphalt production.

DUST: Dust is made up of solid particles between 1 and 75 microns in size (1000 microns are equal to 1 millimetre). The term is also used to describe larger particles resting on the ground or other surfaces that can become airborne to disperse in the air before returning to the surface.

EMBANKMENTS: Mounds of soil or mineral waste placed around the quarry perimeter and vegetated with either trees or grass. Embankments are used in many quarries to reduce noise and dust emissions and mitigate impact on the landscape.

ENDANGERED: An animal or plant species facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future.

ENGLISH HERITAGE: Government body with responsibility for all aspects of protecting and promoting the historic environment.

ENGLISH NATURE: Government advisors on nature conservation in England.

ENVIRONMENT AGENCY: A governmental body that aims to prevent or minimise the effects of pollution on the environment and issues permits to monitor and control activities that handle or produce waste. It also provides up to date information on waste arising and deals with other matters such as water issues including flood protection advice.


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA): Process for predicting and assessing the potential environmental and social impacts of a proposed project, evaluating alternatives and designing appropriate preventative, mitigation, management and monitoring measures.


ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT (ES): Applicants for certain types of development are required to submit an environmental statement accompanying a planning application. This evaluates the likely environmental impacts of the development, together with an assessment of how the severity of the impacts could be reduced.

EU'S DECLARATION ON GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2005: The declaration defines sustainable development as an objective aimed at the continuous improvement of the quality of life on earth of both current and future generations, while ensuring respect for the freedom and fundamental rights of all. It sets out a list of key objectives: environmental protection, social equity and cohesion and economic prosperity.

EXCAVATION VOID: The void left by the quarry once minerals have been extracted.

FAULT: Plane or fracture in a rock along which there has been a degree of displacement.

FAUNA: All of the animals found in a given area.

FELDSPAR: Feldspar is the name of an important group of rock-forming minerals which make up perhaps as much as 60% of the Earth's crust. Feldspars can be found in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.

FINAL RESTORATION: Restoration that occurs across the site after mineral extraction operations have ceased.

FINES: Material < 0.06 mm (silt-grade material which often includes clays).

FIRST SECRETARY OF STATE: The lead minister for all policies relating to town and country planning, having powers of intervention on development plans and planning casework under certain circumstances.

FLINT: Hard, resistant sedimentary rock composed of fine silica. Occurs as nodules, for example in chalk, and is often concentrated in river gravels.

FLOCCULENT: A chemical added to water that causes dispersed clay particles to stick together (coagulate) and form flocs that drop out of the water column quicker.

FLORA: All of the plants found in a given area.

FLUE GAS DESULPHURISATION: Flue gas desulphurisation involves the passing of flue gas from a power plant through a limestone/water slurry to reduce the amount of sulphur released into the atmosphere. Sulphur reacts with the limestone to form calcium sulphate (gypsum) that can be used in the building trade.

FLY ROCK: Rocks propelled from the blast area by the force of the explosion.

FOLDED: Sequence of rocks that have been bent and deformed by tectonic pressures.

FOLKESTONE FORMATION: The Folkestone Formation of the Lower Greensand Group of the Weald consists of medium- and coarse-grained, well-sorted cross-bedded sands and weakly cemented sandstones up to 80 m thick. It is a regionally important source of construction sand and between Buckland and Godstone in Surrey and Maidstone and Borough Green in Kent, it is also an important source of silica sand.

FURNACE BOTTOM ASH: Furnace bottom ash is the 'coarse' ash fraction (inorganic residue) produced in the furnaces of coal-fired power stations.

GENERAL DEVELOPMENT PROCEDURE ORDER (GPDO): A Government policy order outlining that certain limited or minor forms of development may proceed without the need to make an application for planning permission.


GEOPHYSICS: Study of physical phenomena within the earth: branches include the study of seismology (earthquake shockwave propagation), magnetic fields, gravity, electrical conductivity and resistively, and heat flow.

GRANITE: Coarsely crystalline igneous rock, composed primarily of quartz and light-coloured minerals: feldspars and micas.

GRANODIORITE: Coarsely crystalline igneous rock, composed primarily of quartz and light-coloured minerals but containing more plagioclase than potassium feldspar and abundant biotite mica and hornblende, giving it a darker appearance than true granite.


GVA: Gross value added = value of output - costs of production

GYPSUM: Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is the hydrated form of calcium sulphate. Gypsum is economically important as a raw material for plaster and cement.

HABITATS: The physical and biological environment on which a given species depends for its survival; the place or type of site where an organism or population naturally occurs.

HAULAGE: Moving of materials from the working face to the processing plant using trucks.

HEAD OF PLANNING: The lead planning officer at a local authority.

HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE: The Health and Safety Commission is responsible for health and safety regulation in Great Britain. The Health and Safety Executive and local government are the enforcing authorities who work in support of the commission.


HOUSEHOLD WASTES: Refuse from household collection rounds, waste from street sweepings, public litter bins, bulky items collected from households. Most of household waste is vegetable matter, which decomposes under anaerobic conditions to produce a range of toxins (leachate). Household waste may also contain metals, human waste (nappies) and chemicals that may become hazardous over time and therefore must be sealed and monitored for a long time after disposal.

IGNEOUS: Crystalline rocks, formed from primary silicate melts e.g. granite, dolerite, gabbro, granodiorite, basalt, which may be coarse or fine grained and form either intrusive bodies (plutons, sills, dykes) or extrusive flows (lava).

INDURATED: The hardening of a rock or rock material by heat, pressure, or the introduction of cementing material.


INERT WASTES: Waste not undergoing significant physical, chemical or biological changes following disposal. Does not adversely affect other matter that it may come into contact with, and does not endanger surface or groundwater.

INLIER: An outcrop of rocks surrounded by rocks of a younger age. Can be created, for example, by the erosion of a domed anticline fold.

INTENSITY OF USE: Tonnes of aggregate used in each tonne of construction material output.

JUDICIAL REVIEW: A procedure by which the high court may review the reasonableness of decisions made by administrative authorities or lower courts, for example a planning decision.

LANDBANK: A stock of planning permissions for reserves that ensure continuity of production for a set number of years.


LIGNITE: A brownish-black 'coal' in which the alteration of plant matter has progressed beyond peat but has not yet reached coal grade.

LIMESTONE: A sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate. Formed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate from warm, shallow seas or by the accumulation of calcium carbonate in shells or coral.

LISTED BUILDINGS: A building of special architectural or historic interest. Graded I (highest quality), II* or II.

  LOCAL BIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN: LBAPs outline the actions to be taken at a local level, often led by local government bodies with partners drawn from industry, local communities, Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholder groups.

LOCAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORKS: The local development framework is a non-statutory term used to describe a folder of documents, which includes all the local planning authority's local development documents (comprised of development plan documents, which will form part of the statutory development plan, and supplementary planning documents). The local development framework will also comprise the statement of community involvement, the local development scheme and the annual monitoring report.

LOCAL PLANNING AUTHORITIES: The local authority or council that is empowered by law to exercise planning functions. Often the local borough or district council.


MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Matters that should be taken into account in deciding on a planning application or on an appeal against a planning decision.


MATRIX: The finer grained material between larger particles of rock.

METAMORPHIC: Rocks which have been subject to heat or pressure which has caused changes in their solid state e.g. quartzite, hornfels.

MINERAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK (MDF): A minerals development framework consists of a number of planning documents relating to the development of mineral workings across the county.

MINERAL PLANNING AUTHORITY (AUTHORITIES) (MPA): The planning authority responsible for planning control of minerals development. The mineral planning authorities are the statutory bodies (county councils, metropolitan borough councils, national park authorities, etc.) which control mineral workings in their areas. They are given guidelines by the government in the form of national and regional strategies and guides.

MINERALS AND NATURE CONSERVATION FORUM: Organisation formed by English Nature, the Quarry Products Association and Silica and Moulding Sands Association in 1998 to encourage further progress in biodiversity and geodiversity conservation by the quarrying industry.

MINERALS LOCAL PLAN: Through the minerals local plan a county council provides the detailed policy framework for assessing proposals for the working of the minerals in its area. The aim is to balance the county council's responsibilities to make provision for the winning and working of minerals for local, regional and national needs, with its responsibilities to protect the environment and the amenity of local residents.

MINERALS PLANNING GUIDANCE NOTES (MPGS): Documents issued by the DCLG setting out government policy and advice on minerals planning issues. (Currently being replaced by Minerals Planning Policy Statements).

MINERAL POLICY STATEMENT (MPS): Minerals Planning Statement published by DCLG. MPSs will eventually replace minerals planning guidance notes.

MITIGATION: Measures and actions taken to minimise, reduce, remedy and/or compensate for the adverse impacts of development. In general, a hierarchy of reduce – remedy – compensate is used to establish an order of preference (beginning with reduce) for mitigation measures, although preventative measures should be attempted before all other options.

MUDSTONE: Sedimentary rock composed of clay-sized particles.

NATIONAL PARKS: The statutory purposes of National Parks are to conserve and enhance their natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage, and to promote opportunities for public understanding and enjoyment of their special qualities.

OTHER WASTES: Hazardous wastes can be produced as a by-product from a number of industrial processes and can include chemicals, oils, low grade radioactive material, etc.

PARTICULATE POLLUTION: Fine particles, visible as smoke, released into the atmosphere during combustion.

PECUNIARY AND NON-PECUNIARY INTERESTS: Financial interests in the success or otherwise of the planning application, or a non-financial interest such as family ties or close personal acquaintance.

PERMITTED DEVELOPMENT: Rights to carry out certain limited forms of development without the need to make an application for planning permission, as granted under the terms of the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order.

PERMITTED RESERVES: Mineral deposits with the benefit of planning permission for extraction.

PLANNING CIRCULAR 11/95: Circular 11/95: Use of conditions in planning permission

PLANNING COMMITTEE: The planning committee is responsible for making decisions on the bigger and more sensitive planning applications received by the council. The remaining applications are determined by the chief planning officer on behalf of the council under what are known as delegated powers. The planning committee is made up of elected councillors; regular meetings are held at which the public have an opportunity to address the councillors and be involved in the debate over planning applications.

PLANNING CONDITIONS: Requirements attached to a planning permission to limit or direct the manner in which a development is carried out.


PLANNING OBLIGATIONS: A legal agreement between a planning authority and a developer, or offered unilaterally by a developer, ensuring that certain extra works related to a development are undertaken. For example, the provision of highways.

PLANNING OFFICER: An employee of the county council trained and experienced in planning matters.

PLANNING PERMISSION: Formal approval sought from a council, often granted with conditions, allowing a proposed development to proceed. Permission may be sought in principle through outline plans, or be sought in detail through full plans.

PLANNING POLICY STATEMENTS (PPS): Issued by central Government to replace the existing Planning Policy Guidance notes, in order to provide greater clarity and to remove from national policy advice on practical implementation, which is better expressed as guidance rather than policy.

POLISHED STONE VALUE: The Polished Stone Value of aggregate gives a measure of resistance to the polishing action of vehicle tyres under conditions similar to those occurring on the surface of a road.


PRIMARY AGGREGATES: Produced from naturally–occurring mineral deposits, extracted specifically for use as aggregate.

PROCESSING OPERATIONS: The process that quarried material must undergo before it is fit to be sold to the market. Processing involves a series of crushing and screening stages designed to produce material with a specified range of sizes.

PROGRESSIVE RESTORATION: Restoration that occurs in one part of the site while extraction continues in another.

PULVERIZED FUEL ASH: Fly ash/pulverized fuel ash is a fine powder extracted from the flue gases of furnaces burning pulverized coal.

QPA: The Quarry Products Association is the trade association for companies involved in supplying crushed rock and sand and gravel from land and marine sources. The QPA represents the interests of more than 120 quarry operators who together produce more than 90% of the UK's aggregate-based construction materials and in doing so provide livelihoods for 40 000 people.

QUARTZITE: A durable metamorphic rock consisting mainly of quartz, formed by the alteration of sandstone by heat and pressure.

QUATERNARY: The uppermost part of the Cainozoic Era from 1.8 million years ago to present day.

RECONSTITUTED STONE: Crushed rock or sand cemented together to look like a slab of natural rock.

REGIONAL ASSEMBLY: Each of the English regions outside of London has a regional chamber that the regions generally call regional assemblies They are responsible for developing and co-ordinating a strategic vision for improving the quality of life in a region. The assembly is responsible for setting priorities and preparing certain regional strategies, including regional spatial strategies. For example, in the north-east of England the regional planning body is the north-east Regional Assembly.

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES: The nine Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) set up in the English regions are non-departmental public bodies. Their primary role is as a strategic driver of regional economic development in their region. The RDAs aim is to: co-ordinate regional economic development and regeneration; enable the regions to improve their relative competitiveness; and reduce the imbalances that exist within and between regions. For example ‘One North East’ in the north-east of England.

REGIONAL SPATIAL STRATEGY: A strategy for how a region should look in 15 to 20 years time and possibly longer. It identifies the scale and distribution of new housing in the region, indicates areas for regeneration, expansion or sub-regional planning and specifies priorities for the environment, transport, infrastructure, economic development, agriculture, minerals and waste treatment and disposal. Most former regional planning guidance is now considered RSS and forms part of the development plan.

RESTORATION: Returning the land used in quarrying to some previously agreed purpose. This may be for use by landfill, agriculture, wildlife or as a new public amenity such as parkland or water sports.

RESTORATION AWARDS SCHEME: The restoration awards scheme began in 1970 and is run by the QPA. The scheme recognises excellence and innovation in all aspects of restoration of former quarry sites.

RESTORATION GUARANTEE SCHEME: A scheme run by the QPA that can provide financial assistance for the restoration of a site if the operator faces financial difficulties and cannot fulfil its restoration obligations. Members have committed themselves to support claims up to a total of £1 million and contribution to the fund is compulsory.

RETROSPECTIVE PLANNING APPLICATION: A planning application seeking permission for a development after the development has been completed.

ROYALTY PAYMENT: A payment made for the right to use the property or the estate of another person for gain.

RURAL AREAS: Areas outside of towns or cities with low population density where the dominant land use is agricultural.

SANDSTONE: Sedimentary rock made of fragments of sand size in a finer grained matrix or cementing material. Sand particles are predominantly quartz.

SCALPINGS: Fine materials removed prior to a stage of crushing.

SCHEDULED ANCIENT MONUMENTS: Nationally important monuments that enjoy greater protection against inappropriate development through the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979.



SECONDARY AGGREGATE: Includes by-product mineral waste, synthetic materials and soft rock (shale) used with or without processing as a secondary aggregate.

SEDIMENTARY: Rocks composed of clasts which have been eroded, transported (by wind, water or ice), deposited and subjected to diagenesis (compaction and cementation). e.g. sandstone, mudstone.

SELF DISCHARGING TRAINS: Wagons on a self-discharging train are linked by a conveyor running underneath the hoppers to an extending boom that allows discharge away from the track.


SHERWOOD SANDSTONE: Late Permian to Mid Triassic fluvial sedimentary group. Although the group contains some mudstones and pebble beds it is dominated by poorly consolidated, medium / coarse sandstones.

SILICA AND MOULDING SANDS ASSOCIATION: A constituent body of QPA, the Silica and Moulding Sands Association (SAMSA) represents the interests of QPA's silica sand producers.

SILICA SAND: Sandstone which contains a high proportion of silica (99% SiO2) in the form of quartz. Low levels of impurities such as iron (<0.035% for clear glass, <0.3% for coloured glass) are important, as is grain size (0.5mm to 0.1mm).

SILT LAGOONS: Lagoons in which fine material is settled so as to allow the recycling of clean water back into the aggregate processing plant over time. Usually a series of lagoons are built allowing the clearest water from one lagoon to overflow into the next.

SLAG: Waste material produced as a by-product of smelting metals. Results from the fusion of flux (usually limestone) with coke ash as well as silica, alumina and other impurities remaining after the metal has been removed.

SLATE: A compact, fine-grained metamorphic rock that possesses slaty cleavage and hence can be split into slabs and thin plates. Formed by the alteration of mudstone by heat and pressure.

SPATIAL PLANNING: Spatial planning goes beyond traditional land-use planning to bring together and integrate policies for the development and use of land with other policies and programmes which influence the nature of places and how they function. That will include policies which can impact on land use, for example by influencing the demands on, or needs for, development, but which are not capable of being delivered solely or mainly through the granting or refusal of planning permission and which may be implemented by other means.

SPECIES: A group of interbreeding organisms that seldom or never interbreed with individuals in other such groups, under natural conditions; most species are made up of subspecies or populations.

STATEMENT OF COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT (SCI): The SCI sets out standards to be achieved by the local authority in involving the community in the preparation, alteration and continuing review of all local development documents and development control decisions.

STOCKPILING: Piling of unsold aggregate material to be sold at a future date. Changes in market demand over time may result in large stockpiles of specific materials.

STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: An environmental assessment of certain plans and programmes, including those in the field of planning and land use, which complies with the EU Directive 2001/42/EC. The environmental assessment involves the: preparation of an environmental report; carrying out of consultations; taking into account of the environmental report and the results of the consultations in decision making; provision of information when the plan or programme is adopted; and showing that the results of the environment assessment have been taken into account.

STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP INITIATIVES: Partnership between the operator and the local community involving direct community involvement in the development and restoration of the quarry site and surrounding area.

STRIPPING: Removing soil and overburden to expose the underlying mineral resource. Usually undertaken by an excavator. Stripped surfaces may be exposed for long periods of time pending archaeological investigation or may be worked very soon after exposure.

SUPERQUARRIES: Very large quarry with high production rates and suitable links by rail or sea allowing bulk transportation to distant markets.

SUSPENDED SOLIDS: Solids, such as particles of silt and clay, suspended in the water column.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

TECTONIC COMPRESSION: Compression of rocks by forces relating to plate tectonics such as orogenies (mountain building events when tectonic plates collide). Can result in highly indurated rock suitable for use as a high specification aggregate.

TREE PRESERVATION ORDERS: A mechanism for securing the preservation of single or groups of trees of acknowledged amenity value. A tree subject to an order may not normally be topped, lopped or felled without the consent of the Local Planning Authority.

UK BIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN (UKBAP): The UK BAP is the UK Government's response to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) signed in 1992. It describes the UK's biological resources and commits a detailed plan for the protection of these resources. It has 391 Species Action Plans, 45 Habitat Action Plans and 162 Local BAPs with targeted actions. Many companies are now producing their own Company BAPs that outline their contribution to the UK and local BAPs.

UNCONFORMITY: A boundary separating two or more rocks of different ages, marking a gap in the geological record. An unconformity shows a period of time when there was no deposition in an area, usually indicating uplift, and may be marked by erosion of the older strata.

UNCONSOLIDATED: Rocks consisting of loosely coherent or uncemented particles, whether occurring at the surface or at depth.

VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS: Products created at the quarry site that command a higher market price than aggregate. e.g. asphalt, cement, etc.

VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LINKAGE: Development of links between a core business and other related businesses operating at the same stage of production (horizontal) or at earlier or later stages of production (vertical).



WASHING PLANT: Part of plant, usually found in sand and gravel quarries, that washes fine materials off the coarser gravels.

WEATHERING: Processes by which rock and soil are altered by exposure to the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

WEIGHBRIDGE: Mechanism at quarry entrance for weighing lorries as they enter and leave the quarry site.

WILDLIFE TRUST: Charitable organisations that work to preserve and enhance wildlife habitats within a local area.

WHIN SILL: An intrusive igneous, quartz-dolerite sill complex, with finer grained 'chilled' contact rock. Average 30 m thick with thicknesses up to 73 m recorded. Crops out throughout northern England where it is considered as an important aggregate resource due to its durability and relatively high PSV value.

WORLD HERITAGE SITES: A cultural or natural site of outstanding universal value designated by the 'International Council on Monuments and Sites' (ICOMOS), for example Durham Cathedral and Hadrian’s Wall.

WORKING DEPTH: The depth above O D (Ordnance Datum) to which the quarry can work.