The BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units — Result Details

Balderton Sand And Gravel Member

Computer Code: BDTN Preferred Map Code: notEntered
Status Code: Full
Age range: Pleistocene Epoch (QP) — Pleistocene Epoch (QP)
Lithological Description: Predominantly cold-phase sands and gravels that underlie the Balderton Terrace. Orange-brown sandy gravel dominated by rounded pebbles of "Bunter" quartz/quartzite (c.75%) with subordinate subangular flint (c.15%), and rarer Triassic sandstone, etc. Infills a broad sinuous channel extending northeast from Newark towards the Lincoln Gap; terrace surface falls from c.20m above OD (c.10m above the Trent floodplain) to c.11m OD. Sections show intraformational and epigenetic ice wedge casts. Upper part locally includes a thin fluvio-aeolian coversand (Whisby Sand Bed, pre-Ipswichian) and a rubified paleosol (Hykeham Soil: Ipswichian). Basal part locally includes channel-filling organic silts (Thorpe on the Hill Bed), which yield a temporate flora and fauna assigned to MIS 7. Correlated with the Southrey Sand and Gravel Member (Trent Valley Formation, pre-diversionary River Trent east of Lincoln Gap) and Egginton Common Sand and Gravel Member (Trent Valley Formation).
Definition of Lower Boundary: Unconformable, commonly channelled base, resting on pre-Quaternary bedrock and possibly, very locally, on the Skellingthorpe Clay Member of the Wolston Formation.
Definition of Upper Boundary: Ground surface.
Thickness: 0 to c.9m; typically c.6 to 8m
Geographical Limits: Newark upon Trent to Lincoln Gap (see Brandon and Sumbler, 1991, Figure 1) with possible outliers (Whatton Sand and Gravel) present to the southwest of Newark. British Geological Survey sheets 113, 114, 126, 127.
Parent Unit: Trent Valley Formation (TRVA)
Previous Name(s): Balderton Member (-683)
Beeston River Terrace Deposits. (-4450)
Whatton Sand And Gravel (WHAT)
Older River Gravel (ORG)
Balderton Sand And Gravel (-3833)
Beeston River Deposits (-3834)
Alternative Name(s): none recorded or not applicable
Stratotypes:
Type Section  Whisby Pit, near Thorpe on the Hill, Lincoln. Brandon and Sumbler, 1991. 
Reference(s):
Brandon A and Sumbler, M G. 1991. The Balderton Sand and Gravel: pre-Ipswichian cold stage fluvial deposits near Lincoln, England. Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol.6. 117-138. 
Berridge, N G, Pattison, J, Samuel, M D A, Brandon, A, Howard, A S, Pharaoh, T C and Riley, N J. 1999. Geology of the Grantham district. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, sheet 127 (England and Wales). 
Straw, A. 1963. The Quaternary evolution of the lower and middle Trent. East Midlands Geographer, Vol.3, 171-189. 
Straw A and Clayton, K M. 1979. The Geomorphology of the British Isles: Eastern and Central England. (London: Methuen). 
Swinnerton, H H. 1937. The problem of the Lincoln Gap. Transactions of the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, Vol.9, 145-153. 
Clayton, K M. 1957. Differentation of the glacial drifts of the East Midlands. East Midlands Geographer, Vol.1, 31-40. 
Gozzard, J R. 1976. The sand and gravel resources of the country east of Newark upon Trent, Nottinghamshire: description of 1:25 000 resource sheet SK86 and part of SK76. Mineral Assessment Report, Institute of Geological Sciences, No.20. 
Pocock, T I. 1929, The Trent valley in the glacial period. Zeitschrift fur Gletscherkunde, Vol.17. 302-318. 
Bowen, D Q. 1999. A revised correlation of Quaternary deposits in the British Isles. Geological Society Special Report, No. 23. 
Brandon, A and Sumbler, M G. 1988. An Ipswichian fluvial deposit at Fulbeck, Lincolnshire and the chronology of the Trent terraces. Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol.3, 127-133. 
Clayton, K M. 1953. The glacial chronology of part of the middle Trent basin. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, Vol.64. 198-207. 
Edwards, W N, 1967. Geology of the country around Ollerton (2nd edition). Memoir of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, sheet 113 (England and Wales). 
Howard, A J. 1992. The Quaternary Geology and geomorphology of the area between Newark and Lincoln. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Derby. 
Jackson, I. 1977. The sand and gravel resources of the country west and south of Lincoln, Lincolnshire: description of 1:25 000 resource sheets SK95 and part of SK96 and SK97. Mineral Assessment Report, Institute of Geological Sciences, No.27. 
Lister, A M and Brandon, A. 1991. A pre-Ipswichian cold stage mammalian fauna from the Balderton Sand and Gravel, Lincolnshire, England. Journal of Quaternary Science, 6, 139-157. 
1:50K maps on which the lithostratigraphical unit is found, and map code used:
E127 E113 E114 E126