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London soil geochemistry map Copper (Cu)

A geochemical map of copper (Cu) in topsoils of Greater London, a short summary of its surface chemistry and a brief account on the underlying geology. (Adobe Acrobat PDF 1.00 MB)

  1. London Earth is a regional survey rather than a site specific investigation. It identifies the broad distribution trends of chemical elements in the London urban environment. Interest in specific local sites will require further sampling at a greater sampling density. The process of urbanisation will inevitably alter the chemical environment of urban areas. These maps help us to understand the extent to which the natural environment has been altered by human activity and helps to quantify how the chemical environment has changed. The chemical elements reported are those for total element concentrations and do not give the information regarding how mobile an element is or whether it exists in a form that will impact on human health.
  2. The viewer shows a selection of chemical maps which are based on interpolating data between sampling sites. Such modelling, particularly in areas where the soil shows a great variability in element concentrations, does introduce a degree of uncertainty regarding the attribution of chemical element concentrations between sampling sites. By displaying the data classified by standard percentile classes there is no interpretation of the results presented, merely and indication of where low through to high concentrations occur.
  3. The full dataset can be licensed from BGS. Please contact BGS enquiries for further information about the survey and data.
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