Browsing downloads in "Geohazard Notes"

As part of the Natural Hazards Partnership, BGS has prepared a number of 'Geohazard Notes' to provide relevant summary information about some of the geohazards that could affect the UK.

Coastal Erosion
Removal of material form the coast by wave and tidal action, amongst other factors, can cause flooding, rock falls, loss of land and damage to infrastructure. Surveying and monitoring of coastal areas helps to gain better understanding of the physical processes involved, as well as identifying susceptible locations at an early stage.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 1.21 MB]
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Collapsible Ground
Some natural deposits can undergo a rapid reduction in volume causing them to collapse. Collapsible deposits can lead to damage to buildings and infrastructure such as building foundations and underground utilities. Collapsible deposits in the UK are largely confined to south-east Essex and northern Kent. BGS produces maps of potential for collapsible ground in England, Scotland and Wales.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 2.52 MB]
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Compressible Ground
Compressible ground is caused by soft superficial layers, which can undergo volume reduction under the weight of overlying structures or changes in water level. Compressible ground can cause damage to building foundations, utility connections and can create cracks, tilting or subsidence in buildings. BGS produces maps of potential for compressible ground in England, Scotland and Wales.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 1.56 MB]
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Geomagnetism UK
The geomagnetic hazard arises from rapid and/or large changes in the magnitude and direction of the natural geomagnetic field. Rapid magnetic variations can be hazardousto some technologies, such as power grids, pipelines, satellites, and railways. Whilst the geomagnetic hazard cannot be prevented, careful monitoring and prediction enables operators to better safeguard their technologies and thus mitigate their risk.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 4.42 MB]
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Ground shrinking and swelling
Shrinking and swelling ground occurs as a result of changes in the moisture content of clay-rich soils. It can cause damage to buildings and infrastructure and is a major concern for the insurance industry. BGS produces maps of potential for shrink-swell in England, Scotland and Wales.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 1.69 MB]
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Groundwater flooding
Groundwater flooding occurs when groundwater emerges above the ground surface into areas away from perennial river channels. It has been estimated that over 1½ million properties in England and Wales are susceptible to groundwater flooding. BGS has produced groundwater flooding susceptibility maps to help assess the risk of groundwater flooding in the UK.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 1.02 MB]
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Landslides
Landslides are mass movements of rock, earth and debris down slope under the force of gravity. The damage caused by a landslide is very much dependant on its speed, location and proximity to people and assets. BGS maintains a National Landslide Database and produces digital geological maps showing areas susceptible to landslides and locations of previous mass movements.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 1.38 MB]
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Naturally occurring radon
Radon is a natural radioactive gas that occurs in rocks and soils and can only be detected with special equipment. Radon can accumulate in buildings and can cause lung cancer if received in high concentrations. BGS and HPA have produced maps of radon affected areas, which help to identify radon-affected properties and enable preventative or remedial work to be undertaken to reduce the risk from radon accumulation.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 578 KB]
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Seismic hazard
The main hazard posed by earthquakes is strong ground shaking, which can cause buildings to collapse and potential injury or death to occupants. The UK is a low to moderate hazard region and specific safety measures are not required for most buildings except high-consequence structures such as dams and nuclear facilities.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 1.75 MB]
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Soluble Rocks
Soluble rocks host underground cavities with the potential to collapse, producing slight subsidence or dramatic sinkholes. Changes in the local groundwater conditions can trigger collapse in soluble-rock areas, which can lead to collapse of buildings and roads and damage to infrastructure. BGS produces maps of potential for soluble rocks in England, Scotland and Wales.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 2.36 MB]
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Volcanic hazards
The main volcanic hazards to affect the UK are ash, gas, aerosols and tsunami, all as a result of eruptions elsewhere, most likely Iceland. Volcanic ash and aerosols can cause damage to jets, propeller planes, helicopters and other airborne vehicles.
[Adobe Acrobat PDF 1.10 MB]
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