GroforGood Groundwater MicrobialRisk, 2015-2017, Kwale County, Kenya (NERC grant NE/M008894/1)

Dataset description

Results of microbial water quality conducted in Kwale County, Kenya from 2015 to 2017 by University of Oxford and Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya as part of the Gro for GooD project ( Water samples from 101 locations (including 31 open wells, 27 deep boreholes, 21 shallow boreholes with handpumps, 15 covered dug wells with handpumps, and 10 surface water sites. This data set contains results for microbial risk parameters including Escherichia coli, thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) and tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF). Most samples also have accompanying data on pH, conductivity, water temperature and turbidity. Duplicate and replicate samples are included and indicated by 'Dup' or 'Rep'. Duplicates samples were collected from the same water points within minutes of each other and laboratory replicates were different aliquots from a single sample. Risk classifications of E. coli and TTC data are based on the World Health Organisation's microbial water quality risk grading scheme. Manufacturer recommended sampling protocols were used. The sampled water points were in regular use and boreholes were flushed with either an electric pump or hand-pumping prior to sample collection. Samples from the open wells were drawn with buckets and rope, which were designated for each site and were rinsed prior to sampling to minimise secondary contamination. Daily field and laboratory blank samples were analysed to confirm no secondary contamination or cross-contamination between sites. For the tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF) measurement, approximately three litres of unfiltered water were pumped or poured into a stainless-steel container (kept in a black box to prevent ambient light from interfering). The container was cleaned with ethanol and triple-rinsed with sample water prior to each measurement. Measurement was conducted for approximately 3 minutes and the median result was used. The probe and its sensor window were kept clean. Air bubble formation on the sensor window was avoided. For the bacteria sampling, sterile purpose-made bags were used for sample collection and immediately stored in a cooler box with ice-packs. They were transported and processed to begin incubation within two to five hours.

Further information

For more information please contact:


Environmental Science Centre, Nicker Hill, Keyworth
NG12 5GG

Tel : +44 (0)115 936 3143
Fax :+44 (0)115 936 3276


Dataset details

Author(s) Dr R A Hope
Principal Investigator(s) Dr R A Hope
School of Geography and the Environment
University of Oxford
Language English
Curator British Geological Survey
Supply media/format MS Excel; Version:
Storage format Not available
Frequency of update not applicable
Start of capture {ts '2015-09-01 00:00:00'} Not known
End of capture {ts '2017-03-31 00:00:00'} 31st March 2017
Contact details
Department Enquiries
Organisation British Geological Survey
Address Environmental Science Centre, Nicker Hill, Keyworth
City Nottingham
County Nottinghamshire
Country United Kingdom
Postcode NG12 5GG
Telephone +44 (0)115 936 3143
Fax +44 (0)115 936 3276
Topic category code (ISO) geoscientificInformation (information pertaining to earth sciences)
Keyword source BGS Keyphrases
Spatial details
Spatial Reference System Arc 1960 / UTM zone 37S [21037]
Dataset extent
Coverage (Lat/Long) North boundary : -3.55
East boundary  : 39.7
South boundary : -4.67
West boundary  : 38.45
Metadata language English
Metadata last updated 11th July 2018
Metadata standard compliance NERC profile of ISO19115:2003
Copyright and IPR
The copyright of materials derived from the British Geological Survey's work is vested in the Natural Environment Research Council [NERC]. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, or stored in a retrieval system of any nature, without the prior permission of the copyright holder, via the BGS Intellectual Property Rights Manager. Use by customers of information provided by the BGS, is at the customer's own risk. In view of the disparate sources of information at BGS's disposal, including such material donated to BGS, that BGS accepts in good faith as being accurate, the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) gives no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the quality or accuracy of the information supplied, or to the information's suitability for any use. NERC/BGS accepts no liability whatever in respect of loss, damage, injury or other occurence however caused.